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Bio Final Exam Part

What are cells? Smallest units of living things.
In what phase of the cell cycle is the DNA replicated? S Phase.
What does totipotent mean? Can form any cell in the body.
What is the outcome of mitosis? Two genetically identical cells.
What is the division of the nucleus called? Mitosis.
What disorder is caused when cells undergo the cell cycle and mitosis without control? Cancer
What is differentiation of cells? Cells change to become different types of cells with specific jobs.
What are histones? Proteins associated with wrapping and folding DNA.
How do cells differentiate? Different genes turn off to create different proteins.
What is Chargaff's rule? Adenine = Thymine and Cytosine = Guanine.
What are DNA molecules made of? Long chains of nucleotides.
What is the function of DNA? Regulate the production of protein.
What is a nucleotide composed of? Sugar, Phosphate, and Nitrogen - containing base.
What is the complementary strand of DNA to AAGCTAG? TTCGATC.
What bases are different in RNA than DNA? Thymine in DNA is replaced with uracil in DNA
What process starts with RNA polymerase bonding to the promoter in the DNA? Transcription.
After transcription, where does mRNA move to in order to create the protein? Ribosome.
What is the role of mRNA? Carries instructions for making proteins from the nucleus to the Ribosome
What is the role of the anti-codon in translation? Ensure that each amino acid is delivered to the proper codon.
What is a codon? mRNA triplet that specifies a particular amino acid
What occurs in transcription? DNA is recorded to mRNA.
What does the quaternary level of protein folding produce? Polypeptides into complete protein.
What level of protein folding uses hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions to bond the protein? Secondary.
How does the epigenome affect the DNA? It turns genes on or off
What happens when genes have a methyl group attached to them? Turned off.
What happens when genes have an acetyl group attached to them? Turned on.
What is the phenotype of a person that is heterozygous for a trait? Dominant.
If a person is homozygous dominant for a trait, what is the phenotype? Dominant.
What is incomplete dominance? A blending of phenotypes into an intermediate form.
What does the "X" shape represent? Helical shape DNA.
What do the missing smears represent? Two strands.
What is the structure of phosphate, sugar, and Nitrogen base? DNA nucleotide.
Created by: Odgersale