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3rd Six-Weeks Review

Functions of Cells+DailyForces/Homeosta+Digestive Molecules+Levels of Organizati

TermDefinition
Cell Theory A widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things; explains that the cell is the fundamental structural and functional unit of living matter.
Cellular Respiration The process by which cells use oxygen to break down nutrients from food to release energy for the cell.
Lysosomes The organelle that holds waste materials from the cell and contains digestive enzymes to break down food, worn out pieces of cell, and other waste.
Photosynthesis A chemical reaction during which the chloroplast of plant cells convert radiant energy into chemical energy; transforms carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and glucose (sugar).
Force A push or pull that can change the motion of an object.
Motion The change in an object's position with respect to time and in comparison to the position of other objects used as reference points.
Turgor Pressure Force of water molecules against the cell wall that allows plants to stand up straight.
Vacuole A sac-like organelle that stores water, food, and other materials.
Stimulus An action or condition that provokes a response.
Response A change in a system resulting from a stimulus.
Homeostasis The tendency of an organism or cell to maintain a balanced state so as to maintain health and function.
Pathogen A microorganism or virus that can cause disease.
Fight or Flight Short-term physiological changes in response to stress that prepare the body for intense activity to avoid harm.
Tropism The turning or bending movement of a living organism or part of an organism toward or away from an external stimulus, such as light, heat, or gravity.
Phototropism Response of a plant to grow toward or away from light.
Geotropism/Gravitropism A plant’s growth in response to the force exerted upon it by gravity.
Molecule The simplest unit of a chemical compound that can exist, formed when two or more atoms join together chemically; a group of atoms bonded together.
Large Molecule Molecules made up of many atoms bonded together.
Proteins Biomolecules made of amino acids that perform biological functions; needed to build and repair body structures, and to regulate processes in the body.
Amino Acids The molecular and organic building blocks of proteins.
Lipids (Fat) One of the nutrient-providing components of food; used as an energy source in the body, and found in butter, oils, nuts, meat, fish, and some dairy products.
Fatty Acids A carbon-based molecule that can store large amounts of energy; building blocks of lipids.
Carbohydrates Biomolecules made of oxygen, hydrogen, & carbon that organisms use for structural support & energy storage; can be broken down into simple sugars.
Sugars (Glucose) A simple molecule with stored chemical energy; product of photosynthesis & building blocks of the carbohydrates in our bodies & in the food we eat.
Fiber Tough, stringy structures in plants that the human body cannot digest or break down, making them pass unchanged through the digestive system.
Enzymes Biomolecules that speed up specific chemical reactions; functional proteins with names usually end in "-ase."
Cell Basic structural and functional unit of living organisms.
Tissue A large mass of similar cells that make up a part of an organism and perform the same specific function.
Organ A large collection of similar tissue that make up a part of an organism and performs a specific and specialized function of the body.
Organ System Composed of several organs working together to perform specific and vital functions.
Organism An individual form of life that is capable of growing, taking in nutrients, and usually reproducing (organ systems working together).
Physical Change A change to a substance without forming a new substance, such as changing size or state of matter.
Chemical Change A change that alters the identity of a substance, resulting in a new substance or substances with different properties.
Cell The basic structural and functional unit of living organisms.
Organ A collection of similar tissues joined together into a structure that performs specialized functions.
Digestive System The system of organs that work together to break down food into component molecules and absorb the component molecules into the body.
Saliva A clear liquid that moistens the mouth and starts the digestion of food.
Digestive Juices Compounds secreted into the digestive tract that break down foods into component molecules.
Stomach The organ in the digestive system that churns food and mixes it with digestive juices.
Small Intestine The organ in the digestive system that finishes breaking down food with digestive juices and absorbs the nutrients.
Nutrients Substances that provide nourishment essential for growth and the maintenance of life.
Proteins Biomolecules made of amino acids that perform biological functions.
Amino Acids The molecular building blocks of proteins.
Lipids One of the nutrient-providing components of food; used as an energy source in the body, and found in butter, oils, nuts, meat, fish, and some dairy products.
Fatty Acids A carbon-based molecule that can store large amounts of energy; building blocks of lipids.
Carbohydrates Biomolecules made of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon that organisms use for structural support and energy storage.
Sugars (Glucose) A simple molecule with stored chemical energy; the product of photosynthesis and the building blocks of the carbohydrates in our bodies and in the food we eat.
Integumentary System Reacts to external environmental conditions and protects the body’s deeper tissues.
Muscular System Allows body to move and provides strength, balance, and warmth.
Skeletal System Holds organs in place, provides structural support, stores minerals, and generates new blood cells.
Respiratory System Breathing that supplies oxygen to the blood and gets rid of carbon dioxide.
Circulatory System Circulates blood through the body, supplies oxygen and nutrients, and removes waste.
Nervous System Functions as the control center, coordinating all the actions and reactions.
Endocrine System Regulates the body by secreting hormones into the bloodstream; also controls growth, reproduction, and metabolism.
Digestive System The group of organs that work together to break food down by physical and chemical processes into nutrients that the body can use.
Excretory System Filters, collects, and removes excess fluids and wastes from the bloodstream.
Reproductive System Male and female systems used to produce offspring.