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chapter 3

like neoplasia

predominate be a greater in number or amount
proliferation rapid reproduction of a cell, part, or organism
hypertrophy the enlargement of a organ or tissues from an increase in size of its cell
dysplasia the enlargement of an organ or tissue by the proliferation of cells of an abnormal type, as a developmental disorder or an early stage in the development of cancer
aberrant cellular growth alteration in normal cellular growth
neoplasia the presence of a new, abnormal growth of tissue
neoplasm new growth, abnormal cellular reproduction
tumor a growth of neoplastic cells clustered together; may be benign or malignant
benign characterized by abnormal cell division but does not metastasize or invade surrounding tissue
malignant abnormal cell division with ability to invade, metastasize, and recur
cancer malignant growth accompanied by abnormal cell division, invasion of surrounding tissues, and metastasis to distant sites
carcinogenesis carcinoma production or origination of a cancer
sarcoma malignant growth originating in mesodermal tissues that form connective tissue, blood vessels, lymphatic organs
metastasis ability to establish secondary tumor growth at a new location away from the primary tumor or the ability of a malignant neoplasm to spread to distant sites
ionizing radiation is recognized as a cause of cellular mutations
ultraviolet radiation from the sun is a major cause of skin cancers
oncogenic viruses they apparently alter the genome of the infected cell. The two types of oncogenic viruses are DNA viruses and RNA viruses
retroviruses the RNA viruses. These viruses use an enzyme called reverse transcriptase to develop new DNA sequences that are not attacked and destroyed by the immune system
schistosoma haematobium is a parasite that in certain areas of Africa causes an increased incidence of bladder cancer
growth fraction refers to the proportion of cells in a given cell population undergoing cell cycle activity at any given time
labelling index is a measure of cells that are synthesizing DNA, or those in the S phase
cell cycle time (the time from the onset of one mitosis to the onset of the next mitotic phase) may actually be slower in cancer growths than in normal tissues
cell loss refers to the number of cells lost in the process of growth
doubling time is the rate at which a neoplasm doubles its cell population
appropriate cell recognition is the term used for the mechanisms by which specific cells recognize one another
cellular adhesion is a complex process that involves the development of connections between cells
desmosome a structure by which two adjacent cells are attached, formed from protein plaques in the cell membranes linked by filaments
tight junction involves the actual fusion of two cell membranes, forming a barrier to the movement of ions and solutes from one side of the membrane to the other
gap junction a pore passing through the outer cell membrane, permits the movement of low-molecular-weight substances from one adjoining cell to the next
intercellular communication is the way that cells communicate growth information. contact-inhibition, or density-dependent growth control, is observed when normal cells are grown in culture media
uncontrolled proliferation the lack of response to growth inhibitor influences accounts for the uncontrolled proliferation characteristic of neoplastic cells.
autonomy this lack of response allow the neoplastic growth autonomy. In other words, the cells reproduce through the cell cycle again and again as long as nutrients and oxygen are available.
oncogene is a collective term for a multiple set of growth regulatory genes that can promote the development of cancer when they are activated
well differentiated cells cells that look and act like the cell of origin (parent cell)
undifferentiated tumors neoplasms composed of cells that bear little or no resemblance to the tissue of origin (parent cell)
papillomas is epithelial benign tumors of squamous and basal cell origin (parent cell)
adenomas is glandular epithelial benign tumors
leiomyoma neoplasms of muscle cell origin are named according to muscle type. Also means "smooth muscle tumor"
polyps referred to papillomas or adenomas that grow at the end of a stem or pedicle. And they may become malignant
adenocarinomas is glandular epithelial origin (parent cell)
leiomyosarcoma also referred to as LMS, is a malignant smooth muscle tumor. It is also important to note that while it has been believed that leiomyosarcomas do not arise from leiomyomas, there are leiomyoma variants for which classification is evolving
cocarcinogens increase the activity of carcinogens
procarcinogens are carcinogens that must be activated or modified in the cell in order to induce cellular changes
abbreviated shortened, cut short
dissemination the act of spreading something
compensate give (someone) something, typically money, in recognition of loss, suffering, or injury incurred; recompense
regression return to a former or less developed state
contraceptive a device or drug serving to prevent pregnancy
synergistic a substance, organ, or other agent that participates in an effect of synergy
implicated convey (a meaning or intention) indirectly through what one says, rather than stating it explicitly; imply
intercourse communication or dealings between individuals or groups
ascertain find (something) out for certain; make sure of
induced succeed in persuading or influencing (someone) to do something
cohesive characterized by or causing cohesive
embolize to lodge in and obstruct (as blood vessel or organ)
precipitate cause (an event or situation, typically one that is bad or undesirable) to happen suddenly, unexpectedly, or prematurely
anaplasia is the lack of differentiation and is considered a hallmark in recognizing malignant tumor
carcinogens are known to increase the likelihood that exposed people will develop a neoplasm
Created by: Farcaster