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Chapter 3

Chem @ Cell Level

organic compound a compound that contains carbon (except carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and carbonates)
functional group a group of atoms within a molecule that causes the molecule to react in a a specific way
hydrocarbon a molecule that contains carbon and hydrogen
carbohydrate a sugar or starch that living things use for energy
lipid a macromolecule that is not soluble in water
nucleic acid a large macromolecule that stores important information in a cell
macromolecule a molecule composed of a very large number of atoms
monomer a small molecular structure that can chemically bond to other monomers to form a polymer
polymer a very large molecule made from simple units
amino acid a molecule that makes up proteins
monosaccharide a carbonate made of one saccharide
polysaccharide a carbohydrate that can be broken down by hydrolysis into two or more saccharides
nucleotide the repeating monomer in nucleic acids; consists of a nitrogen base, a sugar, and a phosphate group
glycerol a sweet, syrupy alcohol with three hydroxyl groups (OH)
fatty acid a long hydrocarbon with a carboxyl group at the end
fat a chemical that stores large amounts of energy
dehydration synthesis the process of joining monomers by removing a molecule of water
hydrolysis a chemical process in which a molecule is separated into two parts by adding a molecule of water
disaccharide a sugar formed from two monosaccharide molecules
saccharide a simple sugar
fructose a form of sugar found in fruit and honey
glucose a monosaccharide used as a source of energy in animals and plants
isomer one of two or more compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures
starch a polymer of glucose found in plants
cellulose a wood polymer of glucose
glycogen the main storage form of glucose found in animal cells
plastid a small, special part of a plant cell
membrane a wall made of different molecules that separate a cell from its surroundings
Created by: mrspuffisphat21



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