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Geography notes for Christmas

What are the layers of the atmosphere? The troposphere, the stratosphere and the ozone layer.
What is the troposphere? The troposphere is the lowest region in the Earth's atmosphere. It reaches from the ground or water level up to about 17km.
What is the stratosphere? The stratosphere is located 17km-50km from the Earth's surface. Some of the highest clouds can be found in the lower parts of it.
What happens to the solar energy that reaches the Earth? 51% of solar radiation is absorbed by the Earth. A further 19% is absorbed by the atmosphere. The remaining 30% is absorbed by clouds and the Earth's surface.
How is the sun's heat distributed? The sun's heat is distributed unevenly across the Earth. This is due to the tilt of the Earth.
What is latitude? Latitude is the angular distance north or south of the equator.
Why is the equator hotter than other parts of the Earth. The Sun's rays shine directly on the equator and so are concentrated on a smaller area. The rays at higher latitudes are slanted and therefore cover a larger area and are less intense.
Where do winds blow? Winds blow from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure.
What are trade winds? Trade winds are just air movements towards the equator.
What is the Coriolis Effect? The rotation of the Earth on its axis causes what is known as the Coriolis Effect, which makes the trade winds appear to be curving to the west.
What is an air mass? An air mass is a huge band of air characterised by certain temperature, pressure and moisture.
What are some air masses? Polar Maritime, Arctic air mass, Polar continental air mass, Tropical continental air mass, Tropical Maritime air mass.
What is a front? When 2 air masses meet they do not mix well and this leads to the formation of a front.
What are the characteristics of a Warm Front? Warm air moves towards a cool air mass. Lighter warm air rises above the cold air mass. Condenses to form clouds as it rises. Causes drizzle or heavy rain.
What are the characteristics of a Depression? Ascending air and temperatures fall. Low atmospheric pressure. Winds blow in an anti-clockwise direction. Isobars are close together indicating strong winds. Cloudy skies. Wet weather.
What are the characteristics of an Anticyclone? Descending air and temperatures rise. High atmospheric pressure. Winds blow in a clockwise direction. Isobars are well spaced indicating light winds. Clear skies. Dry weather.
What are the characteristics of an Occluded Front? Occluded fronts occur at the point where a cold front takes over a warm front or the other way around. They bring changeable weather.
What instruments, signs on a map & units are used for Temperature? Thermometer measures it. Isotherms show it on a weather map. The unit is degrees C.
What instruments, signs on a map & units are used for Atmospheric Pressure? Barograph measures it. Isobars show it on a weather map. The unit is Millibars.
What instruments, signs on a map & units are used for Humidity? Hydrometer measures it. Isolines show it on a weather map. The unit is %.
What instruments, signs on a map & units are used for Precipitation? Rain Gauge measures it. Isohyets show it on a weather map. The unit is Millimeters.
What instruments, signs on a map & units are used for Wind Speed? Anemometer measures it. Isotacs show it on a weather map. The unit is Km/h.
What instruments, signs on a map & units are used for Sunshine? Campbell-Stokes Sunshine Recorder measures it. Isohels show it on a weather map. The unit is Hours per day.
What are clouds? Clouds form when water vapour cools and condenses into tiny droplets.
What are the characteristics of Cirrus clouds? They are high clouds and can be found above 8000m. They bring dry weather.
What are the characteristics of Cumulus clouds? They are middle clouds and can be found above 2000m. They bring heavy showers.
What are the characteristics of Stratus clouds? They are low clouds and can be found up to 6500m. They bring overcast weather or rain.
What is Relief Rainfall? Moisture laden air blows in from the sea. Can't pass through the mountains on the coast so it has to rise up and move over them. Air rises up, cools, condenses and forms a cloud. Rainfall occurs on the mountain.
What is Frontal Rainfall? Cold and warm air fronts meet. Warm air is lighter so it rises. The air cools and condenses. Clouds form leading to rain.
What is Convectional Rainfall? The Sun heats up a land mass. The air is heated so it becomes lighter and rises. It cools, condenses and forms a cloud. This leads to thunderstorms and heavy downpours. This occurs everyday across the equator.
What are the 4 stages of the Water Cycle? Evaporation, Condensation, Precipitation and Surface Run-Off.
What is Evaporation? Energy from the Sun changes water from a liquid to a gas.
What is Condensation? Vapour is cooled and changes back to tiny water droplets.
What is Precipitation? Water returns to the Earth as a liquid or a solid.
What is Surface Run-Off? Water returns to the sea in rivers.
What is climate? The climate is the common, average weather conditions over a long period of time across a large area of the Earth's surface. It is over 30-35 years.
What are the factors that influence world climate? Latitude, Distance from the sea & Prevailing winds and air masses.
How does latitude affect climate? The closer you are to the equator the lower the latitude. The Sun's rays then have to travel more time over a larger area. The further you are from the equator the colder it is.
How does distance from the sea affect climate? The sea takes longer to heat and cool than land. During summer the water is cooler than land and during winter it is warmer. This influences areas close to the sea. Areas further from the sea have warmer summers and colder winters.
How do prevailing winds and air masses affect climate? Winds move warm and cold air masses. Winds from the south move warm air and winds from the north move cold air.
What is aspect? The direction a slope faces in relation to the Sun. South facing slopes in the northern hemisphere are pointed towards the Sun. They're warmer than north facing slopes.
What is altitude? The height of an area above sea level. The higher you are the cooler it is. Air is thinner and holds less heat. Temperature drops 1C
What are the characteristics of a Cold Front? Cold air is heavier so it forces its way under warm air. Warm air rises, cools, condenses and forms a huge mass of cloud. This results in heavy rainfall. Cold air moves towards a warm air mass.
Created by: JoeBrennan2017