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bio test4

chapter 42

QuestionAnswer
. ______ is the observable response of organisms to external or internal stimuli. Behavior
After removing some freshly baked cookies from the oven, you accidentally brush the side of the pan with your bare hand. Your reflexes kick in and you immediately draw your hand away. What is the proximate cause of this behavior? Sensory receptors in the skin of your hand sent a signal to interneurons in your spinal cord, which subsequently signaled the motor neurons in your arm and hand to contract, drawing your hand away.
Behaviors that appear to be genetically programmed are called innate.
A typical human yawn lasts for about six seconds and once initiated, is nearly impossible to stop. Although there are many hypotheses for why we yawn, it is accepted that yawning is contagious - when we see someone else yawn, we often find ourselves yawni a releaser, an innate behavior
Lions in east African safari parks learn to ignore the presence of safari vehicles. This form is learning is habituation.
Modifications of previous behavior based on experience represent learning.
What is the main difference between habituation and conditioning? Habituation involves a stimulus with no association, while conditioning involves a stimulus with an association.
Classical conditioning such as the salivating of Pavlov's dog in response to a metronome is based on a(n) involuntary response.
Rats learning to press a lever to receive food is an example of operant conditioning
Researchers have found that an octopus given a clear plastic box with three different types of lids and a crab inside will eventually figure out how to get at least one of the lids open to get the crab. They have also shown that after a new octopus observ learning
What is the process through which many animals develop irreversible species-specific behavior patterns? imprinting
In a songbird species, defending a territory saved the bird 584 calories a day in reduced foraging activity, but cost the bird 656 calories in defense of the territory. In this case, is defending the territory consistent with the predictions on optimality No, because because a bird of this species will lose 72 calories per day due to defending the territory.
The use of pheromones to attract a mate is an example of what type of communication? chemical
. Why do many animals do most of their calling at dawn and dusk? Air is less turbulent and carries sound better.
A behavior that benefits others at a cost to oneself is known as altruism.
According to kin selection and Hamilton's rule, a person should die to save the life of nine cousins.
The coefficient of relatedness of a human child to its full sibling is, on average, 0.5.
Hamilton's Rule could be used to calculate the strength of ___________ in a population. kin selection.
What is the only known eusocial mammal? naked mole rats
The situation in which some offspring are haploid and others diploid is referred to as haplodiploidy.
In what type of mating system is marked sexual dimorphism unlikely? monogamy
Communal courting areas are called leks.
What is an assumption of group selection? resource prediction
. Digger wasps orient using sight.
In honeybees, if food is closer than 50 m, scouts perform a round dance about the food's proximity
What would you expect to observe in a species with a promiscuous mating system? . A female mates with a different male in every breeding season.
Ten songbirds are isolated at birth and not exposed to any adults songs as a juveniles. After six months, it is observed that they sing the normal adult songs of their species. What can be concluded about the singing behavior in this particular species? It is an innate behavior.
You discover a new bird species, but so far have only observed ten nesting females. The female birds are small and mostly brown, with a bit of red around their tails and throats. After the eggs hatch, you perform genetic tests which reveal that all chicks They will be larger than the females with more and brighter red coloration
Hippopotamuses form groups called pods while in the water, where they spend their daytime hours, but forage solitarily on land at night. Mothers isolate themselves from the pod to give birth and for an additional 10-60 days. After this isolation period, t access to mates
Most bird species that form flocks show a negative relationship between flock size and individual vigilance (i.e., the larger the flock, the less often an individual lifts its head to scan the surrounding environment). However, some bird species have show As flock size increases, the risk for interference and aggression between members increases, so individuals must scan for both conspecifics and predators.
Intrasexual selection is most closely associated with what type of mating system? polygynous
A study on barn swallows showed a significant relationship between tail length in males and resistance to a parasitic mite. What concept was the study likely investigating? Intersexual selection
Created by: Susyam