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Continental Drift

What is Pangaea? the super-continent that slowly drifted apart into 7 continents
Who proposed the claim of a super continent? Alfred Wegener
What was his claim on continental drift? the continents had once been joined in one super continent that have slowly drifted to their present day locations
Which ocean separates South America from Africa? The Atlantic ocean
In what type of climate do glaciers form? freezing cold
Why did Wegener suggest that continents in the southern hemisphere had a colder climate long ago? there is evidence of past glaciers in places that are too hot today such as South America and Africa
What was Glossopteris? a fern-like plant that grew in a warm climate and had heavy seeds
Where was Glossopteris found? Africa, South America, India, Australia, and Antarctica
What was Mesoaurus? a large freshwater land reptile
What is significant about the fossils of Mesosaurus that were found? they were found in Africa& South America which are separated by a salt water ocean and they are land animals
Which fossil alone supports the idea that all continents were once joined? Glossopteris
Why did scientists argue with Wegener's continental drift hypothesis? He had no mechanism- he couldn't explain HOW it happened
when did scientists begin to explore the seafloor? 1900s
what did scientists use to discover the seafloor? sonar
how does sonar work? it bounces sound waves of underwater objects then records the echoes of these sound waves
who began studying the seafloor harry hess
what is the MID-OCEAN RIDGE? a long underwater mountain range where magma comes up through the mantle
where is the mid-ocean ridge located? mid-Atlantic ocean & plate boundaries
what is SEAFLOOR SPREADING the seafloor slowly grows outward from mid-ocean ridges as new crust is formed, pushing the continents
how does the sediment near the ridge compare to the sediment farther away from the ridge the farther away the older it is...... the closer the younger it is
where was the first evidence used to support seafloor spreading mid-Atlantic ridge
what creates Earth's magnetic field the spinning of the inner core
what is normal polarity when magnetic particles align to the north
what is reversed polarity when magnetic particles align to the south
how does the basalt that forms during seafloor spreading record a magnetic signature the iron minerals will align to the magnetic north
what are the 2 types of evidence scientists use to support the theory of seafloor spreading age of ocean rocks & magnetic striping
how does seafloor spreading explain the continental drift hypothesis seafloor spreading the the mechanism of continental drift
what 3 forces drive plate movement convection, gravity, and pressure
what is a subduction zone the area where parts of the ocean floor sink back into the mantle over tens of millions of years
what are the 2 types of crust and what are their characteristics ocean crust: thinner, more dense, younger continental crust: thicker, less dense, older
what is the lithosphere made up of crust and upper part of mantle-plates *there are 15 major plates
what is the asthenosphere made up of upper mantle----> liquidy, solid layer
which sphere makes the plates move asthenosphere
where is the oldest ocean crust found furthest away from the mid ocean ridge
which factor is found at all plate boundaries earthquakes
what is formed at a subduction zone deep-ocean trenches
what happens at a convergent boundary the plates collide
what happens at a divergent boundary the plates divide
what happens at a transform boundary the plates slide past each other
what is a hotspot a location that is volcanically active even though it is not located near a plate boundary
where are most volcanoes and earthquakes found pacific plate/ plate boundaries
what is the places where are most volcanoes and earthquakes found called the ring of fire
what two things increase the deeper you go in earth pressure and temperature
what is the theory of plate tectonics the theory describing how Earth's plates move and what happens when they interact
which plate do we live on north american plate
Created by: dancer2024