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Chap. 16

Anatomy of the Heart

One function of the heart is to pump blood through ________. Vessels
One function of the heart is to: Provide oxygen and nutrients to every cell
Location of the heart Within mediastinum
How much of the heart is located left of the midline? 2/3
Apex def. Lower pointed end of the heart
Apex is located between which ribs? 5 and 6
Precordium def. Area of the anterior chest wall overlying the heart and great vessels
How heavy is the heart? Less than 1 lb.
Endocardium is continuous with: Vessels entering/exiting the heart
Which layer of the heart is the thickest? Myocardium
Myocardium is composed of which type of muscle? Cardiac
Function of cardiac muscle within myocardium Pump blood through the blood vessels
The epicardium helps form _________. Pericardium
Name of sling-like structure that supports the heart Pericardium
The periscardium is composed of what type of membranes? Serous
Innermost layer of pericardium Visceral pericardium
Middle layer of pericardium Parietal pericardium
Outermost layer of pericardium Fibrous pericardium
The pericardial space/cavity is located between what two layers of the pericardium? Visceral and parietal
Pericarditis def. Inflammation of pericardium (creates friction and rubbing, causes fluid to accumulate. results in pericardial effusion)
Cardiac Tamponade def. Compression of heart due to enfusion - life threatening
What part of the heart enables it to pump blood Myocardium
The heart is a double pump that beats as one. Name the two pumps. Right heart and left heart
What kind of blood does the right heart contain? Deoxygenated blood
From where does the right heart receive deoxygenated blood? SVC/IVC
Where does the right heart pumps blood? To the lungs
What happens to the blood pumped by the right heart? Picks up oxygen and dumps carbon dioxide
Name the process in which the right heart pumps blood to the lungs. Pulmonary circulation
From where does the left heart receive blood? Lungs
To where does the left heart pump blood? The rest of the body
Name the process in which the left heart pumps blood to the rest of the body. Systemic circulation
The right atrium receives blood from the __________. SVC/IVC
Is blood that enters the right atrium de/oxygenated? Deoxygenated
Through and to where does the right ventricle pump blood? Through the pulmonary arteries to the lungs
The left atrium receives blood from where? Lungs via pulmonary veins
Is blood that enters the left atrium de/oxygenated? Oxygenated
The left ventricle receives blood from where? Left atrium
The right ventricle receives blood from where? Right atrium
The left ventricle pumps blood through and to where? Through the aorta to systemic circulation
What separates the right and left atrium? Interatrial septum
What separates the right and left ventricles? Interventricular septum
Between the atria and ventricles, which has the thicker wall? Ventricles
Between the right and left ventricle, which has the thicker wall? Left
Define hypertrophy Enlargement of ventricles due to overworking of the heart
Name the five large blood vessels directly attached to the heart SVC, IVC, Aorta, Pulmonary Artery/Trunk, Pulmonary Veins (4)
Function of the heart valves To keep blood flowing forward
Name the two entrance valves of the ventricles of the heart Right/left atrioventricular (AV) valve
Name the two exit valves of the ventricles of the heart Right/left semilunar valve
Location of AV valves Between atria and ventricles
What causes the AV valves to close? Pressure of ventricle contraction
What attaches cusps of valves to ventricle wall? Papillary muscle and chordae tendonae
What is the function of ventricle wall cusps? Keep AV valves closed and blood from flowing backwards
Right AV valva a.k.a. Tricuspid valve
Left AV valve a.k.a. Bicuspid valve
Location of semilunar valves Between ventricles and exiting great vessels (aorta and pulmonary artery/trunk)
What causes semilunar valves to close? Pressure difference between great vessels (higher) and ventricles (lower)
When do the semilunar valves close? When ventricles are at rest
What causes the semilunar valves to open? Ventricular contraction
Right semilunar vlave a.k.a. Pulmonary semilunar valve
Location of pulmonary semilunar valve Between right ventricle and pulmonary artery/trunk
Left semilunar valve a.k.a. Aortic semilunar valve
Location of aortic semilunar valve Between left ventricle and aorta
Stenosis of heart valves Narrowing of the heart valves
Mitral Incompetence Abnormal closure of the mitral valve resulting in regurgitation of blood into the atrium and leading to reduced heart function or heart failure
What creates heart sounds? The closing of the heart valves
S1 (Lubb): Closure of the AV valves
S2 (Dupp): Closure of the semilunar valves
Where is S1 (Lubb) best heard? Over the apex
Where is S2 (Dupp) best heard? Over the base
Heart murmur definition Swooshing or squishing sounds made by the heart rather than 'lub-dub' sound...usually caused by turbulent blood in the heart
Shunt definition Passage that diverts blood from its normal flow
Result of left to right shunt Ventricular Septal Defect
What happens as a result of a ventricular septal defect Left ventricle pumps blood both to aorta (normal) and through defect into right ventricle
Why is a Ventricular Septal Defect acyanotic? Because oxygenated blood is still being pumped by the left ventricle
What happens as a result of a right to left shunt Ventricular Septal Defect and stenosis of pulmonary semilunar valve
Describe the direction of blood flow through the ventricles Right ventricle pumps blood thru defect into left ventricle
Why is a right to left shunt cyanotic? Because deoxygenated blood is entering left ventricle and systemic circulation
How much can blood flow increase with exercise? 4-5 times
When is coronary blood flow greatest? When the heart is at rest
Coronary arteries can form ___________ (connection between vessels) Anastomoses
Name for heart condition in which a decrease in coronary blood flow results in a decreased oxygen to myocardium Ischemia
Definition of Angina pectoris Chest pain that usually resolves following rest
Myocardial infarction (heart attack) def. Death of myocardial cells due to coronary artery occlusion
Signs/symptoms of a heart attack Crushing chest pain, nausea, sweating, fatigue, heartburn, upset stomach
Secondary signs/symptoms of a heart attack Elevated blood levels of cardiac enzymes, CPK, AST, LDH, troponin
SA node; SA stands for: Sinoatrial node
Location of SA node Upper posterior wall of right atrium
Sinoatrial node AKA Pacemaker - originates cardiac impulse
Where do atrial conducting fibers transmit impulses Thru atria
Atrioventricular nodes (AV nodes) do what? Slow impulses
Location of Bundle of His Interventricular septum
Bundle of His- left and right branches travel thru: Interventricular septum
Function of Purkinje Fibers Transmit cardiac impulse through myocardium of ventricles
What does "automaticity" refer to? The heart's ability to generate the cardiac impulse
Rhythmicity refers to: The heart conducting the cardiac impulses at regular intervals
Dysrhythmia def. Disturbance in heart's normal rhythm
Ventricular fibrillation def. Uncoordinated contraction of myocardium causing the heart muscle to quiver. The heart is unable to pump blood.
Ectopic focus def. Cardiac impulses are generated from cardiac tissue other than the SA node
EGC: what does it do? Electrocardiograph. Measures the electrical activity of the heart on the surface of the skin.
P-wave represents Atrial depolarization
QRS complex represents Ventricular depolarization
T-wave represents Ventricular repolarization
On a normal sinus rhythm, ECG: Appears normal and cardiac impulses originate from the SA node.
Created by: CBaney



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