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Science Chapter 11

Digestion

TermDefinition
digestion the process of breaking down food into forms the body can use
saliva the clear liquid in the mouth breaks down food for digestion
taste buds clusters of special cells on the tongue that react to chemicals in food
sphincter the ring of muscles that control the opening to the stomach
gastric juices the mixture of enzymes, water, and hydrochloric acid that helps the stomach break down food
4 basic tastes sour salty bitter sweet
tongue pushes small ball of food around inside the mouth and toward the back of the throat to be swallowed
2 ways the stomach works on food 1. mechanically 2. chemically
peristalsis the squeezing movement of the esophagus muscles as the food moves to the stomach
chyme liquidlike mixture of food formed when the juices in the stomach break down swallowed food
small intestine where nutrients from food are absorbed into the blood as chyme passes through
large intestine where water and salts are absorbed by the body
liver 1. where a green liquid called bile is produced 2. filters poisons and wastes from the blood
5 basic food groups protein vegetable fruits grains dairy
villi tiny fingerlike structures that line the small intestine
carbohydrates the main source of energy for the body
able to label on diagram mouth stomach small intestine esophagus large intestine
epiglottis the name of the flap of tissue that closes to keep food out of the trachea
the job of teeth during digestion to tear and crush food to help break it down
pancreas digestive organ that produces insulin and makes enzymes that break down food into nutrients that can be absorbed
gallbladder organ that stores excess bile from the liver and releases it when needed
food group place setting display helps you know how much of each food group you need
stomach the stretchy storage bag in the digestive tract below the esophagus
fats the nutrients that provide stored energy and help insulate the body
Created by: PRO Teacher dsaff