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Science Ch 2

QuestionAnswer
photosynthesis The process by which plants and some other organisms capture the energy in sunlight and use it to make food.
Autotroph An organism that makes its own food.
Heterotroph An organism that cannot make its own food.
Pigment A colored chemical compound that absorbs light.
Chlorophyll A green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria.
Stomata Small openings on the underside of a leaf through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move.
Respiration The process by which cells break down simple food molecules to release energy they contain.
Fermentation The process by which cells break down molecules to release energy without using oxygen.
Cell Cycle The regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo.
Interphase The stage of the cell cycle that takes place before cell division occurs.
Replication The process by which cells break down simple food molecules to release the energy they contain.
Mitosis The stage of the cell cycle during which the cells nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one copy of the DNA is distributed into each daughter cell.
Chromosome A double rod of condensed chromatin. It contains DNA that carries genetic information.
Cytokinesis The final stage of the cell cell cycle in which the cell's cytoplasm divides.
Cancer A disease in which some body cells grow in size.
Mutation A change in a gene or chromosomes.
Tumor A mass of abnormal cells that develops when cancerous cells divide and grow uncontrollably.
Chemotherapy The use of drugs to treat diseases such as cancer.
Nearly all living things obtain energy from the energy of ___________ captured during _____________________. sunlight, photosynthesis
During photosynthesis, plants and some other organisms use energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and ____________ into _________ and _____________. water, oxygen, sugars
During ____________, cells break down simple food molecules such as sugar and release the ___________they contain. respiration, energy
Fermentation provides energy for cells without using ________________. oxygen
_______________ begins when mutations disrupt the normal cell cycle , causing cell to divide in an __________________ way. Cancer, uncontrolled
There are three common ways to treat cancer: ____________, ______________, and ___________ that destroy the cancer cells. surgery, radiation, drugs
In DNA, which nitrogen base pairs with G? C
In DNA, which nitrogen base pairs with T? A
Which treatment for cancer would one use if the cancer is found all throughout the body? Chemotherapy
Which treatment for cancer would one use if he cancer is localized in one mass called a tumor? Surgery
Which treatment for cancer is only in one organ, but it is spread out throughout that organ? Radiation
What are the six stages of the cell cycle? Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis
during_____________, the cells grow, makes a copy of its _______, and prepares to divide into _______ daughter cells interphase, DNA, two
because of the way in which the nitrogen bases pair with each other, the order of the bases in each new_______ molecule exactly matches the order in the ___________ DNA molecule. DNA, original
what is the first stage of photosynthesis? chloroplast in plat cells capture energy from the sun
what is the second stage of photosynthesis? the captured light produces glucose and oxygen from water and carbon dioxide
what is the photosynthesis equation? 6Co2 plus 6H2o to C6 H12o6 plus 6o2
what is the respiration equation? sugar plus oxygen to carbon dioxide plus water plus energy
during______________, the cytoplasm divides. the organelles are distributed into each of the two new_________ cytokinesis, cells
Created by: holtneville23