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Science Chap 9

Weathering and Erosion

TermDefinition
weathering 1. process of breaking down rocks into smaller pieces 2. caused by wind, water, and plants
subsoil 1. soil layer that is mostly coarse, weathered rocks 2. does not contain humus
topsoil 1. layer in which most plants grow 2. layer that contains humus
bedrock solid, unweathered rock under layers of soil
frost weathering breaking down of rocks from water in and around rocks and soil freezing and expanding
humus decayed plant and animal material in soil
soil 1. loose material on the surface of the earth 2. made of weathered rock, water, air, and humus
3 sizes of weathered rock sand silt clay
abrasion water or wind gradually wear away rock by friction
landforms 1. physical features of the earth's surface 2. examples: canyons, mountains, islands, dunes
deposition the dropping of sediment in a new place
sediment small bits of rock and other material
delta area of sediment that builds up at the mouth of a river
erosion 1. moving of bits of weathered material from one place to another 2. caused by water, wind, or ice 3. can happen slowly or rapidly
deposited sediment makes the mouth of the river shallower
dunes can be caused by wind erosion
canyons and gorges can be caused by water erosion
avalanche 1. sudden downhill movement of a large amount of snow and ice 2. caused by gravity
landslide 1. rapid downhill movement of a large amount of soil and rock 2. caused by gravity
glacier 1. huge sheet of ice that stays frozen year-round 2. can pick up rock and sediment 3. can cause u-shaped valleys which form ponds or lakes
moraines hills that are caused by glaciers
activities of people that can cause erosion 1. paved areas allow water to run off and cause erosion of the surrounding soil 2. removing plants increases the amount of topsoil that erodes
volcanoes and earthquakes can push land upward
volcano to island be prepared to explain how a volcano can form an island pg. 189
Created by: PRO Teacher dsaff