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Chapter 10

Inheritance Patterns

Trait a characteristic of an organism
heredity the passing of traits from parents to offspring
cross-fertilization a process in which pollen from one plant fertilizes the eggs in a flower of a different plant
pollen tiny grains containing sperm; the male plant gamete
P generation the parent generation; first two individuals that mate in a genetic cross
F1 generation the offspring that result when two different kinds of pure plants are cross-pollinated
hybrid the offspring of two different true-breeding plants
monohybrid cross the cross between two plants that differ in only one trait
F2 generation the offspring that result when two hybrid plants are crossed
allele one form of a gene
dominant gene a gene that shows up in an organism
recessive gene a gene that is hidden by a dominant gene
law of segregation a law that states that pairs of homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis and each gamete receives one gene of a pair
homozygous having chromosomes that contain an identical pair of genes for a particular trait
heterozygous having chromosomes that contain a pair of genes that do not code for the same trait form
dihybrid cross a cross between two plants that differ in two traits
law of independent assortment a law that states that each pair of chromosomes separates independently of other pairs of chromosomes in meiosis
punnett square a model used to represent crosses between organisms
genetics the study of heredity
simple dominance one allele is dominant to a recessive allele
genotype an organism's combination of genes for a trait
phenotype an organism's appearance as a result of its combination of genes
testcross a test that determines an unknown genotype of an organism by crossing it with a homozygous recessive organism
multiple allele one of more than two forms of a gene
codominance two different alleles come together and produce both trait forms
incomplete dominance two different alleles come together and produce a trait form that is neither dominant nor recessive
pleiotrophy one gene that affects many traits
sickle-cell disease a genetic disease in which a person's red blood cells have a sickle shape
polygenic trait a trait controlled by two or more genes
linked gene a gene close to another gene on a chromosome, causing their alleles to be inherited together
linkage map a map that shows distances between linked genes on a chromosome
sex chromosome a chromosome that determines the sex of an organism
autosome a chromosome other than a sex chromosome
sex-linked trait a trait determined by an organism's sex chromosome
hemophilia a genetic disease in which a person's blood fails to clot
carrier an organism that carries an allele but does not show the effects of the allele
sex-linked inheritance the passing on of traits with genes located on the X chromosome
Created by: mrspuffisphat21