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chapter 37

bio exam 2

QuestionAnswer
1. The proportion of the air we breathe accounted for by oxygen is approximately A. 21%. B. 1%. C. 5%. D. 50%. E. 78%. A. 21%.
2. The proportion of the total air pressure that is exerted by an individual gas in a gas mixture is referred to as the A. partial pressure of that gas. B. incomplete pressure of that gas. C. total pressure of that gas. A. partial pressure of that gas.
3. The atmospheric pressure on top of Mt. Everest is only about 238 mmHg, so the approximate partial pressure of oxygen there is A. 2.4 mmHg. B. 50 mmHg. C. 186 mmHg. D. 238 mmHg. E. 476 mmHg. B. 50 mmHg.
4. Why aren't insect tracheae associated with capillary beds? A. Insect capillaries are found only around the gut. B. Insects have an open circulatory system. C. Insects have external gills associated with hemolymph vessels. B. Insects have an open circulatory system.
5. The exchange surfaces of fish gills are arranged as rows of A. lamellae. B. trachea. C. alveoli. D. parabronchi. E. spiracles. A. lamellae.
6. The main phenomenon that increases the efficiency of gas exchange in fish gills is the A. countercurrent exchange mechanism. B. co-current exchange mechanism. C. high degree of oxygen saturation of water. A. countercurrent exchange mechanism.
7. The opening to the tracheal system (respiratory system) in insects is the A. spiracle. B. trachea. C. alveolus. D. bronchus. E. stomata. A. spiracle.
8. What is the correct sequence of structures through which air passes through on the way into the mammalian lung? A. pharynx  larynx  trachea  bronchi  bronchioles  alveoli B. larynx  pharynx  trachea  bronchi  bronchioles  alveoli A. pharynx  larynx  trachea  bronchi  bronchioles  alveoli
9. In the alveoli A. oxygen diffuses into the blood while carbon dioxide diffuses out of the blood. B. oxygen diffuses out of the blood while carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood. C. both oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse out of the blood A. oxygen diffuses into the blood while carbon dioxide diffuses out of the blood.
10. What would be the most direct result of an individual having an inability to produce surfactant in their alveoli? A. The alveoli would physically collapse. B. The alveoli would be much more likely to harbor infections. A. The alveoli would physically collapse.
11. The volume of air normally breathed in and out of the lungs in a single breath at rest is referred to as the A. tidal volume. B. total volume. C. reserve volume. D. inspiratory reserve volume. E. expiratory reserve volume. A. tidal volume.
12. Air rushes into the lungs of humans during inhalation because A. the volume of the thoracic cavity increases. B. pressure in the alveoli increases. C. the diaphragm contracts and pushes upward on the chest cavity. A. the volume of the thoracic cavity increases.
13. During inspiration (a.k.a. inhalation) of air into the lung of a mammal A. the chest cavity has a positive pressure. B. the diaphragm moves upward. C. the diaphragm contracts. D. the rib cage moves down. E. the intercostal muscles relax. C. the diaphragm contracts.
14. Which vertebrates exhibit a "flow through" respiratory system? A. mammals B. birds C. amphibians D. fishes E. birds and fishes E. birds and fishes
15. The respiratory centers that control ventilation of the lungs in mammals are located in the A. brainstem. B. hypothalamus. C. cerebral cortex. D. bronchi. E. neck. A. brainstem.
16. Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood of humans is transported A. as dissolved CO2 in plasma. B. as bicarbonate ion in plasma. C. attached to hemoglobin in red blood cells. D. attached to hemoglobin in plasma. E. as carbonic acid. B. as bicarbonate ion in plasma.
17. What formula correctly represents the behavior of CO2 in the blood? A. CO2 + H2O « H2CO3 + CO B. CO2 + H+ « HCO3+ « H2O + H2CO3 C. CO2 + HCO3- « H+ + H2O + H2CO3 D. CO2 + H2O « H2CO3 « HCO3- + H+ E. CO2 + H2CO3 + O2 « H2O + CO2 + H2CO3 D. CO2 + H2O « H2CO3 « HCO3- + H+
18. Imagine two people using breathing gear under water. Diver old style "rebreather"is "rebreathed" carbon dioxide concentrations in the blood."urge to breathe"? A. Diver 1 would have higher blood pH and would feel the "urge to breathe" sooner. B. C. Diver 1 would have higher blood pH, while Diver 2 would feel the "urge to breathe" sooner.
19. The respiratory pigment you would find in a blue crab or octopus is A. hemocyanin. B. hemoglobin. C. hemophilin. D. ferritin. E. calmodulin. A. hemocyanin.
20. The metal atom bound to the heme group of hemoglobin is A. iron. B. copper. C. manganese. D. zinc. E. sodium. A. iron.
22. Which mammals would be expected to have hemoglobin with the lowest affinity for oxygen? A. mouse B. wolf C. human D. horse E. elephant A. mouse
23. Marine mammals are unable to breathe air during periods of prolonged diving A. increased myoglobin concentrations. D. increased expression of acetylcholine receptors. E. All of the choices for this question are correct. A. increased myoglobin concentrations.
31. What would happen to the gas exchange rate within an insect if the circulatory system was compromised? A. The gas exchange rate would decrease slightly. B. The gas exchange rate would decrease significantly. A. The gas exchange rate would decrease slightly.
32. If the efficiency of the alveoli in an human was reduced by 50%, what would you predict would be the effect? A. The volume of air in the lungs would decrease by 50%. B. The rate of gas exchange would decrease by 50%. B. The rate of gas exchange would decrease by 50%.
33. Predict the most immediate consequence of the inflammation of the pleural sac in a human. A. Gas exchange would decrease. B. Lung volume would decrease. C. Respiratory muscle activity would decrease. D. Hemoglobin's oxygen affinity would B. Lung volume would decrease.
34. Imagine that you have been bitten by a poisonous snake with neurotoxic venom. where you receive antivenom.stopped because the venom would cause A. your trachea to collapse. B. your lungs to collapse. C. your diaphragm to become inactive. C. your diaphragm to become inactive.
35. As a child grows, the lungs increase in size as well. within the if the lung volume of an individual goes from 3000ml to 4000ml. A. gas pressure would decrease B. gas pressure would increase C. gas pressure would be unchanged A. gas pressure would decrease
36. Imagine that you are monitoring What do you predict will occur? A. As soon as oxygen an increas breathing rate. B. Because of the increase in carbon dioxide levels, the brain will an increase in the breathing rate. B. Because of the increase in carbon dioxide levels, the brain will stimulate an increase in the breathing rate.
37. During a particular period of physiological, imagine tha. Predict in this situation. A. The affinity for oxygen by hemoglobin- it does not change. B. The affinity for oxygen by hemoglobin will increase to correct this situation. B. The affinity for oxygen by hemoglobin will increase to correct this situation.
38. In conditions that include a constant temperature, if a dog increases predict what will happen to the pressure of the gas. A. The pressure will increase. B. The pressure will decrease. C. The pressure will not change. B. The pressure will decrease.
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