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chapter 36

exam 2

QuestionAnswer
1. In general, the vessels that carry blood away from the heart in a closed circulatory system are referred to as A. arteries. B. veins. C. capillaries. D. sinuses. E. auxiliary hearts. A. arteries.
2. In general, the vessels that return blood to the heart in a closed circulatory system are referred to as A. arteries. B. veins. C. capillaries. D. sinuses. E. auxiliary hearts. B. veins.
5. Imagine a red blood cell leaving the right ventricle of your heart. To which chamber of the heart will that cell return first? A. right atrium B. right ventricle C. left atrium C. left atrium
6. When compared to the pressure of blood leaving the left ventricle, the pressure of blood leaving the right ventricle is A. greater. B. less. C. not different. B. less.
8. The "hematocrit" is a measure of the total volume of which blood constituent? A. plasma B. leukocytes C. erythrocytes D. platelets E. None of the choices for this question are correct. C. erythrocytes
9. What is considered the most critical function of erythrocytes? A. the transport of oxygen B. the transport of carbon dioxide C. buffering against changes in blood pH D. assisting in clot formation A. the transport of oxygen
10. Which component of the blood is most important for clotting? A. plasma B. leukocytes C. erythrocytes D. platelets E. All of the choices listed for this question are important for clotting. D. platelets
11. The meshwork that forms the fabric of a blood clot mostly consists of A. fibrinogen. B. fibrin. C. thrombin. D. prothrombin. E. collagen. B. fibrin.
12. Which structure prevents blood flowing back into the heart from the aorta between heartbeats? A. semilunar valve B. atrioventricular valve C. tricuspid valve D. mitral valve E. ductus arteriosus A. semilunar valve
13. Which structure prevents blood flowing back into the atria during ventricular contractions? A. semilunar valves B. atrioventricular valves C. sinoatrial node D. carotid blood shunts E. foramen ovale B. atrioventricular valves
14. Animal groups differ in the mechanisms by which heartbeats are initiated. Most arthropods have a A. neurogenic heart while vertebrates have a myogenic heart. B. myogenic heart while vertebrates have a neurogenic heart. A. neurogenic heart while vertebrates have a myogenic heart.
15. The sinoatrial node consists of a form of this tissue. A. nervous B. muscular C. epithelial D. connective E. adipose B. muscular
16. The electrical stimulus for each human heartbeat begins in the A. right atrium at the sinoatrial node. B. left atrium at the sinoatrial node. C. right atrium at the atrioventricular node. A. right atrium at the sinoatrial node.
17. Blood returning to the mammalian heart in a pulmonary vein will drain first into the A. vena cava. B. left atrium. C. right atrium. D. left ventricle. E. right ventricle. B. left atrium.
18. These are the only vertebrates in which blood flows directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without first returning to the heart. A. Amphibians B. Birds C. Fishes D. Mammals E. Reptiles C. Fishes
19. A key influence of the location of the atrioventricular node on o A. speed up the conduction rom the atria to the ventricles. B. slow down the conduction of the electrical impulse to contract as it passes from the atria to the ventricles. B. slow down the conduction of the electrical impulse to contract as it passes from the atria to the ventricles.
20. While shopping at your local at the blood pressure machine A. arterial pressure is 115 mm Hg when the ventricles contract and 75 mm Hg in between ventricular contractions. B. arterial pressure is 75 mm Hg when the ventricles contract A. arterial pressure is 115 mm Hg when the ventricles contract and 75 mm Hg in between ventricular contractions.
21. You expect to find the lowest overall blood pressure in A. humans. B. sparrows. C. alligators. D. ostrich. E. salmon. E. salmon.
22. The "QRS" complex visible in a normal electrocardiogram is associated with the A. excitation from the AV node and depolarization of the ventricles. B. excitation from the SA node and depolarization of the atria. A. excitation from the AV node and depolarization of the ventricles.
23. Essentially all exchange of gases and other materials between the circulatory system and tissues of the body or the outside world (e.g., in the lungs) occurs in the A. capillaries. B. arteries. C. veins. D. heart. E. lymphatic system. A. capillaries.
24. What governs the movement of fluid out of capillaries at the arteriolar end? B. The pressure of the blood is less than that of the interstitial fluid. C. The pressure of the blood is greater than the osmotic force of the interstitial fluid. C. The pressure of the blood is greater than the osmotic force of the interstitial fluid.
25. Fluid that collects in tissues is returned to the bloodstream by the A. excretory system. B. digestive system. C. lymphatic system. D. vascular system. E. endocrine system. C. lymphatic system.
26. Standing still and at attention Which of the following is NOT return of blood from the venous system A. sympathetic activation of smooth muscle in large veins B. skeletal muscle activity compressing veins and forcing blood flow B. skeletal muscle activity compressing veins and forcing blood flow
27. Why are vasodilation and vasoconstriction the main mechanisms to change blood flow? A. Blood vessel length is relatively fixed and has no effect on blood flow. B. Blood hematocrit has no effect on blood flow. A. Blood vessel length is relatively fixed and has no effect on blood flow.
28. Contraction of the muscles surrounding an arteriole that decreased its diameter by 50% would A. increase the resistance in the arteriole approximately 16 fold. B. decrease the resistance in the arteriole approximately 16 fold. A. increase the resistance in the arteriole approximately 16 fol
29. Which changes would not be expected to cause vasodilation in an arteriole? A. decreases in carbon dioxide B. increases in lactic acid C. increases in potassium ion concentration D. decreases in pH A. decreases in carbon dioxide
31. Atherosclerosis is a pathophysiological process resulting from the A. accumulation of plaque in blood vessels. B. reduced arterial resistance. C. elevated vasodilation in the limbs. D. chronic myocardial infarction. E. coronary artery bypass. A. accumulation of plaque in blood vessels.
44. As you are analyzing the blood sample of a human patient, you note an abnormally high number of erythrocytes. Predict the effects of this situation. A. Less oxygen would reach the tissues. D. The ease of flow for the blood could decrease. D. The ease of flow for the blood could decrease.
45. Imagine that you have been assigned the task of describing a new mammalian species. . A. Red blood cells could replicate outside of bone marrow since they retain their nuclei. B. Red blood cells could improve their oxygen-carrying function. A. Red blood cells could replicate outside of bone marrow since they retain their nuclei.
46. Although any injury is worrisome, predict which situation would be most dangerous factor and therefore has blood that does not clot. A. a student who receives a papercut from his term paper C. a toddler who falls and hits his knee on a hard floor C. a toddler who falls and hits his knee on a hard floor
47. To form a blood clot, a series of plasma proteins must activate in a given sequence. If DNA info l, predict the consequence. A. It depends on which protein is affected. B. Regardless of the protein involved, the clot would not form. B. Regardless of the protein involved, the clot would not form
48. As a physician listens to the heart of a human patient, he hears an an atypical "lub" sound. Which part of the heart might be malfunctioning? A. the AV valve B. the semiliunar valves C. the right atrium D. the right ventricle A. the AV valve
49. Imagine that a section of heart muscle no longer has gap junctions. B. The ability of the heart muscle cells severely compromised. D. The ability of the heart muscle cells to coordinate their contractions would be severely compromised. D. The ability of the heart muscle cells to coordinate their contractions would be severely compromised.
50. Predic happen if the pulmonary to the right atrium. B. Abnormally blood would be pushed into the systemic circuit. C. Oxygenated blood would be kept in a circular path between the heart and lungs-it would not reach the systemic circuit. C. Oxygenated blood would be kept in a circular path between the heart and lungs-it would not reach the systemic circuit.
51. In cardiovascular disease, "M.I" refers to A. a stroke. B. a heart attack. C. narrowed arteries. D. high blood cholesterol. B. a heart attack.
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