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18-19 Chapter 4

18-19 Chapter 4 Life in the American Colonies

TermDefinition
subsistence farming producing just enough to meet immediate needs
cash crop a crop that can be sold easily in markets, the Middle Colonies sold many cash crops over seas
diversity variety, such as of ethnic or national groups - the Middle Colonies were the most diverse colonies
triangular trade trade route between three destinations, such as Britain, West Africa, and the West Indies
slave code rules focusing on the behavior and punishment of enslaved people
principal most important
rely to depend upon
representative government a system by which people elect delegates to make laws and conduct government
mercantilism an economic theory whose goal is building a state’s wealth and power by increasing exports and accumulating precious metals in return
export to sell abroad
import to bring in from foreign markets
suspend to set aside or temporarily stop operation of something
impose to force on others
immigration the permanent movement of people into one country from other nation
epidemic an illness that affects large numbers of people
apprentice a young person who learns a trade from a skilled craftsperson
civic virtue the democratic ideas, practices, and values that are at the heart of citizenship in a free society
adapt to change in response to a new set of conditions
emphasis a special stress or indication of importance
militia a military force made up of ordinary citizens
Iroquois Confederacy a group of Native American nations in eastern North America joined together under one general government
alliance partnership
neutral taking no side
shipbuilding an important industry for the New England colonies, supported the fishing industry
plantations large farms that grew cash crops such as tobacco or rice and employed slave labor in the Southern colonies
middle passage The 2nd leg of the triangular trade, the trip the enslaved Africans took across the Atlantic Ocean to the New World
Magna Carta English document (Great Charter) that protected people's rights was signed by King John in 1215 - it made even kings and queens subject to the law
English Bill of Rights Took more power from the monarch and gave more power to the Parliament and the people in 1689
Navigation Acts A series of laws passed by Parliament that forced colonists to sell raw materials to England
smuggling shipping goods without government permission or payment of taxes
Jonathan Edwards A minister during the Great Awakening who gave powerful sermons calling for a "new birth" or a return to the strong faith of the earlier days.
Benjamin Franklin American Colonist (Pennsylvania) that observed Enlightenment ideas and was a shining example of civic virtue
George Washington Colonel George Washington led the Virginia militia in attempt to stop France from advancing into the Ohio River Valley
Fort Necessity The fort set up by Colonel Washington and his men in the Ohio River Valley
Albany Plan Benjamin Franklin's plan for a united colonial government which failed to unify colonists
William Pitt The Prime Minister of Great Britain who sent more trained British troops to fight the French and won French and Indian War
Treaty of Paris In 1763, the Treaty of Paris ended the French and Indian War
The Seven Years War The French and Indian War was known as the Seven Years War in Europe
Chief Pontiac Declared war on and killed American colonies who were trying to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains
Proclamation of 1763 King George declared that colonists would no longer be able to settle west of the Appalachian mountains and kept 10,000 troops in America to watch over colonists
Created by: dacoburn