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Life Cycles of Cells

Chapter 9

TermDefinition
DNA The material that contains the coded information that determines inherited characteristics.
Chromosomes Rod-shaped structures made of proteins and a single strand of DNA containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation to the next.
Spindle A network of fibers that move chromosomes during mitosis
Metaphase Plate The middle of a cell where chromosomes line up during metaphase
Asexual Reproduction The production of offspring from one parent.
Sexual Reproduction The production of offspring that occurs when gametes from two parents combine to form a zygote.
Benign Tumor A tumor that is only in the area where it began
Mitosis The type of cell division that results in two new cells that are identical to the original mother cell.
Meiosis The type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half and produces haploid cells (eggs, sperm, and spores.)
Gametes Haploid reproductive cells (sex cells)
Chromatid The two identical halves of a replicated chromosome.
Centromere The point of attachment between two sister chromatids.
Malignant Tumor A tumor that has spread from its original site to other body areas
egg the female gamete
sperm the male gamete
Homologous Chromosomes Chromosomes that are the same size and shape and carry genes for the same traits.
somatic cell a cell that is NOT a sex cell contains 46 chromosomes
Diploid A cell that contains two haploid sets of chromosomes.
Haploid A cell that contains only one set of unpaired chromosomes.
fertilization the joining of male and female gametes to create a new organism
Interphase The period in between cell divisions in which the cell grows, copies its DNA, and prepares for the next cell division.
zygote a fertilized cell
testes the male sex organ that makes gametes
gonad an organ that makes gametes (either male or female)
testosterone a male sex hormone
scrotum a sac that holds the testes
semen a mixture of fluid and sperm cells
penis the male organ that delivers sperm to the female body
Prophase Phase of cell division in which the nucleolus disappears and the chromosomes are doubled. The nuclear membrane breaks down and the construction of the spindle fiber begins.
ovary the female organ that makes egg cells
estrogen a female sex hormone
ovulation the process of releasing the egg from an ovary
Metaphase The stage of cell division in which sister chromatids are lined up at the center of the cell.
Anaphase The stage of cell division in which the sister chromatids separate and move to opposite sides of the cell.
Telophase The stage of cell division in which the nuclear membrane reforms, the spindle is disassembled and two nuclei are formed in the cell
Cytokinesis The division of the cytoplasm during cell division.
uterus an organ in most female mammals that holds and protects an embryo
menstruation The process during which an unfertilized egg and the uterine lining is shed through the vagina (Marks the end to the montly cycle)
Meiosis II In this part of meiosis the DNA is not replicated and the end result is 4 different haploid cells.
Crossing Over The exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that can occur during meiosis.
Cancer A disorder in which cells do not respond to the signals that regulate cell division and growth resulting in uncontrolled cell division and the formation of tumors.
Meiosis I The events in this part of meiosis include replication of DNA, the formation of tetrads, crossing over and the formation of 2 cells containing half the number of chromosomes as the original cell.
Created by: mrspuffisphat21