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NAU A&P 22

NAU A&P Reproductive System

QuestionAnswer
External organs of the male reproductive system: Scrotum and Penis
Internal Organs of the male reproductive organs: Epididymis, Vans (Ductus) Deferens, Ejaculatory Duct, Seminal Vesicles, Prostate Gland and Bulbourethral Glands
2 primary, ovid sex glands, suspended outside the lower abdominal wall by spermatic cords, through the inguinal canal within the scrotum and holds the ambient temperature for sperm. Testes
Coiled or twisted set of tubules located within each testes which form sperm that are lined with specialized stratified epithelium Seminiferous Tubules
A tightly coiled, comma shaped, threadlike organ on the posterior aspect of each testis which allows for maturation of the non-motile sperm to a motile form, inner lining is composed of pseudostratified columnar cells Epididymis
Continuation of the muscular tube from lower end of the epididymis, passing upwardly & medially to the testis into the abdominal cavity, backward & medially into the pelvic cavity to where it ends behind the urinary bladder at the ampulla Vas Deferens or Ductus Deferens
Fusion of the Vas or Ductus Deferens after it slims down past the ampulla and the duct leading from the seminal vesicle, which passes through the prostate gland and empties into the urethra Ejaculatory Duct
Saclike structures attached to vas deferens, near base of bladder, which secretes an alkaline fluid bath that helps neutralize the acidity of female, fructose that provides energy to sperm & prostalandins that stimulate muscular contraction in the female Seminal Vesicles
A chestnut shaped structure that surrounds the proximal portion of the urethra just inferior to the bladder, secretes and alkaline fluid that also helps neutralize the female reproductive tract & aids in sperm motility. Prostate Gland
2 small structures that are located inferior to the prostate gland that functions to lubricate the end of the penis in preparation for intercourse and cleans remaining urine. Bulbourethral Glands
A fibromuscular cord that functions to help the testes descend Gubernaculum
A tear in the inguinal canal or musculature of the inguinal canal causes: Inguinal hernia
A condition in which a testis does not descend and leads to infertility if untreated Cryptochidism
A tough, white fibrous capsule that encloses a testis Tunica Albuginea of males
The thickening of the tunica albuginea that extends into a testis Mediastinum testis
Divides the testis into lobules Septa
Seminiferous tubules contain these cells: Spermatogenic cells, Sustentacular cells and Interstitial cells
Undifferentiated cells that upon hormone stimulation (LH, FSH, GRH) give rise to the formation of primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa Spermatogenic cells
Columnar support cells that nourish and regulate spermatogenic cells Sustentacular cells or Sertoli cells
Cells between the Seminiferous tubules and secrete testosterone Interstitial cells
A dilated portion of the Vas Deferens that is a superficial structure Ampulla
Consists of sperm cells and secretions of seminal vesicles, prostate gland and bulbourethral glands, sperm cells is about 120 million per milliliter Semen
Makes up semen: Seminal Vesicles, Prostate Gland and Bulbourethral glands
Makes up a sperm cell: Head, Midpiece, Tail
Makes up the head of a sperm cell: Acrosome and Nucleus
Tip of the head of sperm cell containing enzymes and hyaluronidase Acrosome
Contains the 23 chromosomes in the head of the sperm cell Nucleus
Facilitates sperm penetration into the egg Hyaluronidase
Part of the sperm cell that contains mitochondria and provides ATP Midpiece
Part of the sperm cell made up of flagellum which provides motility for the sperm Tail
Consists of skin, subcutaneous tissue and smooth muscle fibers that helps regulate environmental temperatures for sperm viability. Is divided into 2 chambers lined with serous membranes to help the testes move freely within this Scrotum
Cylindrical organ that conveys urine and semen through the urethra composed of a shaft of 3 columns of erectile tissue Penis
The function of the penis: To convey urine and semen through the urethra to the outside
Removal of the prepuce Circumcision
Produced by parasympathetic nerve impulses that cause dilation of arteries leading to the penis. At the same time veins of the penis are compressed & blood accumulates in erectile tissue & the penis swells & elongates Erection
Penis is composed of: 2 columns of Corpora Cavernosa and one column of Spongiosum each column wrapped in tunica albuginea and surrounded by loose connective tissue and skin
The enlargement of the corpus spongiosum at its distal end Glans penis
Tissue with internal spaces to be filled with blood, until the blood reaches the tunica albuginea which creates a stiffening effect Corpora Cavernosa
The culmination of sexual stimulation and in the male is accompanied by emission and ejaculation. Orgasm
The movement of sperm cells from the testes & secretions from the prostate gland & seminal vesicles into the urethra. Emission
The forcing of semen through the urethra to the outside Ejaculation
Hormonal control of the Male Reproductive Functions Hypothalamus releases Gonadotropin which in turn acts upon Anterior Pituitary which secretes LH & FSH which stimulates spermatogensis
Is secreted by the sustentacular cells, through negative feedback, inhibits the anterior pituitary from over secreting FSH. Inhibits continuing maturation of the cells. Inhibin
Lipid soluble male sex hormones produced by the interstitial cells of the ledig or testes & in small amounts in the adrenal cortex. Androgens
Functions in developing both primary & secondary male sexual characteristics and is controlled by age. Testosterone
Internal organs of the female reproductive system: Ovaries, Uterine or Fallopian Tubes, Uterus and Vagina
External organs of the female reproductive system: Labia Majora, Labia Minora, Clitoris, Vestible and Vestibular or Bartholin's Glands
Solid, ovid organ that is the size of pinky finger, held in place by ligaments. Alternates in ovum production. Lies in shallow depressions on each side of the inferior wall of the pelvic cavity. Ovaries
Channels that an carry ovum from the ovaries to the uterus Uterine or Fallopian Tubes or Oviducts
Muscular holding chamber of the ova, the size of a fist if not distended, that attaches to the inside of the pelvic cavity with assistance of ligaments. Is generally tipped forward. Uterus
A fibromuscular tube that extends from the uterus to the outside. Also known as the birth canal. Vagina
The outer region of the ovary, consists of more compact tissue & has granular appearance due to ovarian follicles Outer cortex
The inner region of the ovary, composed of loose connective tissue and contains many blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerve fibers Ovarian Medulla
Tiny masses of cells Ovarian Follicles or Primary Follicles
A layer of cuboidal epithelial cells that covers the free surface of the ovary Germinal Epithelium
The ripening of an egg and forms: Vesicular or Graafian follicle
After ovulation when the egg ruptures from the ovary, the ruptured follicle or leftover egg sac is called: Corpus Luteum
As women age, the eggs become more sticky and fragile. When fertilization occurs, little or big parts of the egg can break off causing: Down Syndrome
Covering lying beneath the cuboidal epithelium or germinal epithelium top layer in females. Tunica Albuginea of females
Are free flowing and when fertilized are not always in the uterus and can be stuck in the fallopian tubes Ova or Egg
3 ligament anchors of the uterus: Broad Ligament, Round Ligament and Suspensory Ligament
Ligament which attaches the ovaries, uterine tubes and lateral walls of the uterus to the pelvic walls Broad Ligament
Ligament located within the broad ligament that connects the upper end of the uterus to the anterior pelvic wall Round Ligament
Attaches uterus anteriorly to the back. Ligament responsible for lower back pain when pregnant. Suspensory Ligament
Uterine wall consists of: Endometrium, Myometrium and Parietal Perimetrium
Inner mucosal layer of the uterus, thickens in preparation for the ovum to shop up and be fertilized Endometrium
Thick muscular middle layer of the uterus. Can causes cramping during menses Myometrium
Outer serosal layer that covers the body of the uterus and part of the cervix Parietal Perimetrium
When the endometrial lining extends outside the uterus Endometriosis
2 expansion of uterine tubes: Fimbriae and Infundibulum
Finger-like projections extending out from the infundibulum that function to sweep the ovum into the uterine tubes Fimbriae
Funnel shaped opening close to ovaries, channels egg into the oviduct or fallopian tube Infundibulum
The collective structures that surround the openings to the vagina & urethra Vulva
Makes up the vulva: Labia Majora, Labia Minora, Clitoris, Vestibule, Vestibular or Bartholin's Glands
Corresponds to the scrotum & are rounded folds of adipose tissue and a thin layer of smooth muscle containing: hairs, sebaceous and pseudoriferous glands Labia Majora
Flattened longitudinal folds inside the majora which anteriorly converge to form a hood-like covering around the clitoris, medial to labia majora Labia Minora
Small projection at the anterior end of the vulva between the labia minora which corresponds to the penis. It also consists of erectile tissue composed of 2 columns called Corpora Cavernosa Clitoris
Lie on either side of the vaginal opening. Corresponds to the male Bulbourethral glands & also secrete mucous to aid in lubrication during intercourse Vestibular or Bartholin's Glands
Space between the vagina and urethral openings Vestibule
Hormonal Control of Female Reproductive Functions: Steps 1-3 1. Hypothalamus releases Gonadotropin 2. Anterior Pituitary which secretes LH & FSH 3. Granulosa cells of the follicle produce and secrete estrogens
Hormonal Control of Female Reproductive Functions: Steps 4-5 4. Anterior pituitary gland releases a surge of LH which stimulates ovulation 5. Follicular cells become corpus luteum cells that secrete estrogens & progesterone
Hormonal Control of Female Reproductive Functions: Steps 6-7 6. If the secondary oocyte is not fertilized the corpus luteum degenerates & no longer secretes estrogen & progesterone 7. Blood vessels in the endometrium constrict as concentrations of luteal hormones decline
Hormonal Control of Female Reproductive Functions: Steps 8-10 8. Uterine lining disintegrates & sloughs off producing menesis 9. Anterior pituitary no longer inhibited produces FSH & LH 10. Cycle repeats
Granulosa cells of the follicle produce and secrete estrogens that do: Maintain secondary sex characteristics and cause the endometrium to thicker
Follicular cells become corpus luteum cells that secrete estrogens and progesterone that do: Estrogen continues to stimulate uterine wall development. Progesterone stimulate endometrium to become more glandular & vascular. Both inhibit secretions of FSH & LH from anterior pituitary utilizing inhibin, prevents another ovulation
Two successive cell divisions that result in haploid cells Meiosis
Cell that contains half the normal chromosomes Sperm cell or Ova cell
First Meiotic Division: Interphase I, Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Telophase I
Second Meiotic Division Interphase II, Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telophase II
Period when the cell is carrying on normal metabolic functions and the DNA duplicates Interphase I
Duplicated DNA condenses and the coil tightens, nucleus disappears, centrioles form the mitotic spindles Prophase I
Lining up of the chromosomes along the middle of the spindle Metaphase I
Separation of the duplicated chromosomes and migration to opposite ends of the cell Anaphase I
Chromosomes uncoil, nuclear membrane reforms in each end of the cell and the cell begins to divide Telophase I
Both daughter cells undergo this: Second Meiotic Division
Chromosomes condenses and coil again Prophase II
Lining up of the chromosomes along the middle of the spindle again Metaphase II
Centromeres separate freeing chromatids to move to opposite ends of the spindle Anaphase II
Chromosomes uncoil, nuclear membrane reforms in each end of the cells & the 2 cells each begin to divide forming 4 cells with half the chromosomes Telophase II
Meiotic division in males is called: Spermatogenesis
Meiotic division in females is called: Oogenesis
After Mitosis in females what happens next: Formation of primaryoocyte is arrested in prophaseI- MeiosisI. Completed by 1primary oocyte monthly causing secondaryoocyte arrested in metaphase2. If fertilization occurs, secondaryoocyte completed Meosis2 with 1fertilizedovum & 3 polar bodies degenerate
Sexually Transmitted Diseases AIDS, Genital Herpes, Genital Warts, Gonorrhea and Syphilis
STD's that affect the nervous system Gonorrhea and Syphilis
Consists of milk glands and tissue: Breasts
Flow chart for Sperm: Seminiferous tubules of testes- Head of Epididymis-Body of Epididymis-Tail of Epididymis- Ductus or Vas Deferens-Ampulla of Vas Deferens-Ejaculatory Ducts-Prostatic Urethra-Penile Urethra-Glan Penis-Urethral Orifice-Outside
Flow chart of Ova: Ovaries-Fimbriae-Infundibulum-Fallopian Tubes-Body of Uterus-Cervix-Vagina-Vaginal Opening-Outside
Regional divisions of the uterus: Body, Fundus and Cervix
Upper 2/3 of the uterus: Body of the Uterus
Top dome-shaped section between the uterine tubes, storage area for the fetus Fundus
Lower 1/3 of uterus, what dilates for childbirth Cervix
Created by: FKrouse