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A&P Exam 1

Chap 1-3

TermDefinition
Anatomy The branch of science concerned with the bodily structure of humans, animals, and other living organisms.
Physiology The branch of science that deals with the normal functions of living organisms and their parts.
Homeostasis The tendency of the body, organism, or cell to seek and maintain a condition of balance.
Autoregulation Occurs when the activities of a cell, tissue, organ, or organ system adjust automatically in response to some environmental change.
Extrinsic regulation Results from the activities of the nervous system or endocrine system, two organ systems that control or adjust the activities of many systems simultaneously.
Negative Feedback Is a reaction that causes a decrease in function.
Positive Feedback Is a reaction enhances a function.
Matter Matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
Atomic Number The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, which determines the chemical properties of an element and its place in the periodic table.
Element A pure substance of one type of atom.
Mass Number The total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus.
Isotope Each of two or more forms of the same element that contain equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei.
Radioisotope A radioactive isotope.
Atomic Weight The mass of a given atom.
Mole A standard scientific unit for measuring large quantities of very small entities.
Valence Shell Outermost shell (valence shell) of the atom, that can be transferred to or shared with another atom.
Chemical Bond Any of several forces, especially the ionic bond, covalent bond, and metallic bond, by which atoms or ions are bound in a molecule.
Molecule A group of atoms bonded together, representing the smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction.
Compound Something that is composed of two or more separate elements; a mixture.
Ionic Bond A chemical bond formed between two ions with opposite charges.
Covalent Bond Chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
Hydrogen Bond A weak bond between two molecules resulting from an attraction between a proton in one molecule and an electronegative atom in the other.
A) Metabolism B) Anabolism C) Catabolism A) Metabolism refers to the bio-chemical reactions that take place in an organism. It consists of two processes – Catabolism and Anabolism. B) Anabolism is related to energy-using processes. C) Catabolism deals with energy releasing processes.
A) Kinetic energy B) Potential energy A) Is the kind of energy an object has because it's in motion B) The energy an object has because of its position, rather than its motion.
Heat Heat is the transfer of kinetic energy from one object to another.
Decomposition Reaction A decomposition reaction is a type of chemical reaction in which a single compound breaks down into two or more elements or new compounds.
Hydrolysis The chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water.
Synthesis Reaction A synthesis reaction is a type of chemical reaction in which two or more simple substances combine to form a more complex product.
Dehydration Synthesis Dehydration synthesis is the process of joining two molecules, or compounds, together following the removal of water.
Exchange Reaction Reaction in which two atoms or ions exchange places either in two different molecules or in the same molecule.
A) Reversible chemical reaction B) Equilibrium chemical reaction A) Chemical reaction where the reactants form products that, in turn, react together to give the reactants back. B) The point at which the concentrations of reactants and products do not change with time.
Activation Energy The minimum quantity of energy that the reacting must possess in order to undergo a specified reaction.
A) Exergonic B) Endergonic A) A chemical reaction that releases energy. B) A chemical reaction that requires energy.
A) Solvent B) Solute C) Dissolve A) Able to dissolve other substances. B) Component in a solution, dissolved in the solvent. C) Become incorporated into a liquid so as to form a solution.
A) Hydrophilic B) Hydrophobic A) Having a tendency to mix with, dissolve in, or be wetted by water. B) Tending to repel or fail to mix with water.
A) Acid B) Base C) Buffer A) Having a pH of less than 7. B) Having a pH of more than 7. C)
A) Monosaccharide B) Polysaccharide C) Disaccharide A) One sugar molecule B) Many sugar molecules C) Two sugar molecules
Isomer Each of two or more compounds with the same formula but a different arrangement of atoms in the molecule and different properties.
Peptide Bond The chemical bond formed between amino acids.
Enzyme Acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction.
Permeability The state or quality of a membrane that causes it to allow liquids or gases to pass through it.
A) Active transport B) Passive transport A) The movement of molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, needs energy. B) The movement of molecules across cell membranes without need of energy input.
Diffusion The intermingling of substances by the movement of their particles.
Osmosis A process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one, equalizing the concentrations on each side of the membrane.
A) Osmotic pressure B) Hydrostatic pressure A) The pressure that would have to be applied to a pure solvent to prevent it from passing into a given solution by osmosis. B) The pressure exerted by a fluid at equilibrium at a given point within the fluid, due to the force of gravity.
A) Osmolarity B) Tonicity A The concentration of a solution expressed as the total number of solute particles per liter. B) The relative concentration of solutes dissolved in solution which determine the direction and extent of diffusion.
A) Isotonic B) Hypertonic C) Hypotonic A) Having the same osmotic pressure as some other solution B) Having a higher osmotic pressure than a particular fluid. C) Having a lower osmotic pressure than a particular fluid.
A) Hemolysis B) Crenation A) Rupture or destruction of red blood cells. B) A process resulting from osmosis in which red blood cells, in a hypertonic solution, shrink.
Membrane potential Electrical potentials are measured in units of volts. (A volt is defined in terms of energy per unit charge. When a nerve or muscle cell is at "rest", its membrane potential is called the resting membrane potential.
Dissociate Molecules (or ionic compounds such as salts, or complexes) separate or split into smaller particles such as atoms, ions or radicals, usually in a reversible manner.
Ionization The process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.
Created by: musicstr7