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Chemistry - Caitlyn

Science - chemistry

Atom An atom is the smallest particle we can obtain using chemical means.
Ion A Ion is an atom with charge (+ or -).
Molecule A molecule is two or more atoms joined together by chemical bonds.
Element An element is an atom or molecule in which all the atoms are the same.
Compound A compound is a molecule made of two or more different atoms.
Isotope An isotope is an atom(s) in which we take away or add neutrons (to the nucleus).
Polyatomic Ion A molecule with charge.
Covalent Bond When atoms combine by sharing electrons to form new molecules (two non-metals).
Ionic Bond When atoms chemically bond to form new molecules (a metal and non-metal) or (two metals).
Chemical Reaction Chemicals (reactants) combining together or splitting apart to form new products. A physical change eg. a change of state.
Law of Conservation of Mass In a chemical reaction, atoms are neither created nor destroyed.
Reactant A reactant is the chemical(s) you start with before the reaction (left side of a chemical equation).
Product A product is the new chemical(s) produced by the reaction (right side of a chemical equation).
Acids A group of chemicals with similar properties (all contain the element hydrogen) solutions with a pH less than 7.
Bases A group of chemicals opposite to acids, solutions with a pH greater than 7. Bases always have hydroxide (OH).
On the periodic table, what information can we obtain from the groups. Groups tell us what the charge is and the number of valence electrons an element has.
On the periodic table, what information can we obtain from the periods. Periods tell us the number of electron shells an element has.
What is the mass number? The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
What is the atomic number? The element number, it also tells you the number of protons and electrons.
What charge does a proton have? A proton has a + charge (positive).
What charge does a electron have? An electron has a - charge (negative).
What charge does a neutron have? No charge, it is neutral.
What are valence electrons? The electrons in the outer-most shell.
What are core electrons? The electrons in the energy levels below valence electrons.
What are the symbols in brackets beside the chemical informing us of the state during the reaction called? State Symbols
What does a Lewis dot diagram show us? The number of valence electrons.
What are the indicators of a chemical reaction? (There are 5) emission of heat, emission of light, the formation of a precipitate, evolution of a gas, a permanent colour change.
What are the five types of chemical reactions? synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement, combustion.
What is synthesis? A + B = AB two elements come together.
What is decomposition? AB = A + B One molecule splits into two.
What is single replacement/displacement? AB + C = AC = B One of the elements swap.
What is double replacement/displacement? AB + CD = AD + CB All elements swap.
What is combustion? A + O2 = AO Always produces oxygen.
What is the symbol and charge for an Aluminium Ion? Al(3+)
What is the symbol and charge for Ammonium polyatomic Ion? NH4 (+)
What is the symbol and charge for Antimony Ion? Sb(3+)
What is the symbol and charge for Hydroxide? OH(-)
What is the symbol and charge for Nitrate? NO3(-)
What is the symbol and charge for Phosphate? PO4(3-)
What is the symbol and charge for Sulfuric Acid? H2SO4(-)
What is the symbol and charge for Sulphate/Sulfate? SO4(2-)
What is the symbol and charge for Carbonate? CO3(2-)
How do you speed up the rate of the reaction? Add heat = more energy. Higher concentration = more collisions. Pressure = less space. Surface area = more exposure eg. grinding. Catalyst = magical spell.
What is a cation? An Ion(s) with a positive charge (+).
What is an Anion? An Ion(s) with a negative charge.
What are the diatomic elements? Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine.
Collision theory? As more collisions in a system occur there will be more combinations of molecules bouncing into each other.
Prefixes: Mono = one. Di = two. Tri = three. Tetra=four. Penta=five. Hexa=six. Hepta=seven. Octa-=eight. Nona = nine. Deca=10.
Ionic properties: made of two metals combined or a non-metal and a metal. Total transfer of electrons. Solid at room temperature. High melting and boiling points. Conducts electricity well. Soluble in water. Non-soluble in non-polar liquids.
Covalent or molecular properties: two non-metals. Share electrons. Low melting and boiling points. Liquids and gases at room temperature. Poor conductor of electricity. Non-soluble in water. Soluble in non-polar liquids.
What are the two parts of an atom? The nucleus and the electron field.
What is found in the nucleus? Protons and Neutrons.
What do protons determine? Protons determine which element you have.
True or False: In a neutral atom, there is the same number of protons and electrons. True.
True or False: A molecule with two different atoms is an element. False, it is a compound.
True or False: a molecule made of different types of atoms is called an element. False, it is a compound.
How many electrons can the first electron energy shell contain? 2.
True or false: the second and third electron shells can hold up to 8 electrons. True.
What is the maximum number of electrons held in the fourth shell? 16 electrons.
True or False: Noble Gas have only one electron, therefore they are highly reactive. False: Noble Gas have full electron shells.
What does a subscript tell us? (the little number at the bottom of a symbol) The number of atoms of that element we have.
Ionic Bonds When two opposite ions attract each other they form an ionic bond.
Covalent Bonds: two non-metallic atoms joined together by sharing electrons.
If you had Sodium (Na) and Chlorine (Cl), what would there name be? (Ionic) Sodium Chloride. (NaCl)
If you had silver (Ag) and oxygen (O), what would the name be? (Ionic) Silver Oxide (Ag2O)
What kind of bond would Phosphorous and Oxygen be bonded by? Ionic or Covalent? Covalent - they are both non-metals.
There was one Phosphorous atom and 4 Oxygen atoms, if they bonded what would their name be? *remember Ionic and Covalent naming. Phosphorous Tetraoxide. (PO4) Also known as, Phosphate.
When you balance a chemical equation you cannot change the subscripts: True or False. True
When balancing chemical equations, you can only change the co-efficients: True or False. True
What is the name for the chemicals on the left side of the equation? Reactants.
What is the name for the chemicals on the right side of the equation? Products.
True or False: Acids burn the skin and corrode other substances. True
When acids are mixed with metals they produce Hydrogen Gas and a Salt. What would the formula be if there was Sulfuric Acid and Magnesium? *(Brackets) mean subscript - small numbers at the bottom. H(2)SO(4) + Mg -> MgSO(4) + H(2)
True or False: Sulfuric Acids produce salts called Sulphur False: They produce salts called Sulphates.
What are bases soluble in water called? Alkalis
What taste and feel do bases have? Bitter taste and soapy feel.
Where are bases most commonly found? Cleaning products.
What taste is usually associated with acids? Sour taste
Bases and Alkalis always contain hydroxide (OH). True or False. True
How many formulas are there regarding mixing acids, bases, gases and their products etc.? 4
1) METALS + ACIDS -----> Hydrogen gas so, if it was Magnesium and you mixed it with Hydrochloric Acid, what would be the product? Mg + HCl(2) ----> MgCl + H
What is HNO(3)? Nitric Acid
What is H(2)SO(4)? Sulfuric Acid
What is HCl? Hydrochloric Acid
What is NaOH? Sodium Hydroxide
What is CaOH? Calcium Hydroxide
What is the formula for synthesis? A+B --> AB
What is the formula for decomposition? AB ---> A+B
What is the formula for single displacement? AB+C ---> AC+B
What is the formula for double displacement? AB+CD ---> AD+CB
What is combustion? A reaction between a substance combining with oxygen.
Created by: Caitlyn_01