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EOY10 Computing

RAM RAM is temporary storage of all data and programs that are currently open.
ROM ROM contains the boot-up program which loads the operating system.
RAM V ROM RAM is volatile (forgets everything when power switched off), ROM is non-volatile RAM is rewritable, ROM is read only
CPU Purpose of CPU is to fetch instructions from memory, decode them and then execute the instructions.
Clock Speed Clock speed is the number of cycles that the CPU can complete in one second (measured in GHz). The faster the clock speed means the CPU can process more instructions per second.
Cache Size Cache Memory acts as a buffer between RAM and CPU. A larger cache size means more data can be held for fast access
Number of Cores The number of cores is the number of processors (Dual Core = 2 processors, Quad Core = 4 processors). The more cores a CPU has the more information can be processed at the same time.
Virtual Memory This is when RAM uses a part of the Hard Drive as if it was extra RAM. We use this when RAM is full however it will run slower.
Optical Storage CD, DVD, BluRay. Cheap and Easy to produce lots of copies. Portable but can be scratched
Magnetic Storage Hard Drive (Internal / External), Floppy Disk, Tape Disk. Large storage capacity (Up to 2+ Terabytes). Not very portable and can be damaged when near magnets
Solid State / Flash memory USB Pen, Solid State Drive (SSD), Memory Card (e.g. SD card), Internal storage. Very portable as there are no moving parts. Can be dropped without damaging
Memory Management The OS manages the transfer of data between the CPU, RAM and main storage (e.g. hard drive)
User Interface The OS provides the user with a way of controlling the functions of the computer without resorting to machine code.
Graphical User Interface Uses Windows, Icons, Menus & a Pointer (WIMP). This is easy to use and no complicated commands need remembered
Command Line User Interface Allows users to interact directly with the computer by typing in commands (instructions). Faster than Graphical if commands are known and less RAM needed
Voice/Speech User Interface Allows users to speak in their normal everyday language to interact with the computer. No training is required and suitable for disabled users.
Multi-tasking The OS allows more than one program to be run at once so users can switch back and forth between applications easily. E.g. copying and pasting from the Internet to Word
Peripheral Management The OS manages the input and output devices connected to the computer, including things like keyboard, mice and printer.
Security The OS provides security features to restrict access to the system or particular files.
Why Binary? Computers are made up of logic circuits. These contain millions of switches which can be on or off, or 1 or 0
Characters Each character (Uppercase, lowercase, numbers, symbols & control characters e.g. CTRL + ALT) is assigned a unique binary code. When the user types one of these characters, the binary code is sent to the computer and the character is displayed.
Character Set This is all the characters that can be displayed by a computer. E.g. ASCII & Unicode
ASCII v Unicode ASCII is 8 bits, can display up to 255 characters which is enough for all European languages Unicode is at least 16 bits, can display over 65,000+ which is all the languages of the World and Emojis
Pixels A Pixel is a single block of colour which together makes up an image. Pixels are stored in bits.
Colour Depth This is the number of bits used for each pixel. The more bits used means more colours available which will increase the quality but also the file size
Resolution This is the concentration of pixels OR the number of pixels per inch. If you increase the resolution this means more pixels per inch which will increase the quality but also the file size.
Metadata ASCII is 8 bits, can display up to 255 characters which is enough for all European languages Unicode is at least 16 bits, can display over 65,000+ which is all the languages of the World and Emojis
Sound Sound is stored in the computer by taking samples of the sound wave at regular intervals and converts those samples into binary
Sample Rate This is the number of samples per second. The more samples taken, the better the quality will be however the file size will increase.
Bit Rate This is the amount of bits available for each bit, the more bits used means the greater range of sounds can be recorded but the file size will increase
Instructions Instructions consist of two parts, an Opcode and an Operand.
Opcode This tells the CPU what task needs to be done from a list of accepted commands e.g. ADD
Opcode This is the data that will be acted upon. It can also refer to a place in memory.
Networks Advantages To share the printer, Internet Connection, files and able to communicate with each other e.g. by email
Networks Disadvantages Viruses can spread quickly over a network rather than contained to a stand-alone computer
LAN Local Area Network. Computers are connected together in a single building or site. The owner of the network is responsible for purchasing and maintaining the hardware and software.
WAN Wide Area Network. Computers & LANs are connected over large areas such as cities and countries. WAN use hardware and cables from a telecommunication company (e.g. BT)
Hub / Switch A hub allows devices to connect together in a LAN. This allows them to send packets of data to each other.
Router This is more intelligent than a hub as it sends packets over the least congested path, not just the most direct path.
Wireless Access Point This allows a device to connect to a network wirelessly using radio channels. The data received through the radio channel is fed into the hard-wired network. Wi-Fi is slower than using cables and a WAP can only support a limited number of connections.
Modem This converts digital signals from the computer into analogue signals that can be sent over the telephone line. Another mode then converts these analogue signals back into digital data that the computer can understand.
Bus Topology This is the simplest method of creating a network. One cable joins all the workstations and devices. A terminator is at each end which prevents signals echoing.
Bus Topology Advantages Cheap, easy to install and to add extra workstations
Bus Topology Disadvantages If a problem occurs with the central cable the entire network stops working. If there are a lot of workstations data travels slowly and collisions can occur. Low security.
Ring Topology In a ring network all of the computers are connected to each other in a circle. The data passes from one computer to another all the way round until it reaches the destination computer.
Ring Topology Advantages Transmission is simple with no data collisions. Computers added easily
Ring Topology Disadvantages If one computer or cable breaks the network doesn’t work. Slower than other networks as it travels through every computer.
Star Topology Each workstation is connected by its own cable directly to the server. These are the most common network type as they are the most reliable.
Star Topology Advantages Very reliable, one break does not affect others, very few data collisions and good security.
Star Topology Disadvantages Expensive, expert setup needed, server crash affects everyone
Internet Protocol This protocol is used for sending information over the internet, from one computer to another
Transmission Control Protocol This protocol provides a bridge between an application and the IP, allowing communication between the two
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol This protocol is used to make web applications (such as websites) accessible over the internet. However, this type of HTTP is not encrypted and therefore not secure
Internet Message Access Protocol This protocol is used when we want to read an email from our email server. The original email is not downloaded, and therefore not deleted off the email server
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure This is a more secure version of HTTP, as the connection is encrypted
File Transfer Protocol This network protocol is used for transferring files from a server to a client
Post Office Protocol This protocol is used when we want to download an email from our email server. The email is downloaded and the original is deleted off the email server
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol This is a protocol used for sending emails using email servers
Created by: ssmith897