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BIO 2 FINAL

Learning Targets

QuestionAnswer
How do eubacteria and archaebacterial prokaryotes differ? Archaebacteria lack the peptidoglycan of eubacteria and also have different membrane lipids. Also, the DNA sequences of key archaebacterial genes are more like those of eukaryotes than those of eubacteria
What is used to identify prokaryotes? Shape, cell walls, movement, and obtaining energy
Why are bacteria vital to maintaining the living world? Some are producers that capture energy by photosynthesis. Others are decomposers that break down the nutrients in dead matter and the atmosphere
Describe the structure of a virus. Particles of nucleic acid, protein, and in some cases, lipids
What is a lytic infection? virus enters a cell, makes copies of itself, and causes the cell to burst
What is a lysogenic infection? virus integrates its DNA into the DNA of the host cell, and the viral genetic information replicates along with the host cell's DNA
How does bacteria cause disease? Some bacteria damage the cells and tissues of the infected organism directly by breaking down the cells for food. Other bacteria release toxins (poisons) that travel throughout the body interfering with the normal activity of the host
How can bacteria growth be controlled? sterilization, disinfectants, and food processing
How do viruses cause diseases? viruses produce disease by disrupting the body's normal equilibrium
unicellular organism lacking a nucleus prokaryote
rod-shaped prokaryote bacillus
spherical prokaryote coccus
spiral or corkscrew-shaped prokaryote spirillum
organism that must take in organic molecules for both energy and carbon chemoheterotroph
organism that is photosynthetic but needs organic compounds as a carbon source photoheterotroph
organism that uses energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water to carbon compounds photoautotroph
organism that makes organic carbon molecules from carbon dioxide using energy from chemical reactions chemoautotroph
organism that requires a constant supply of oxygen in order to live obligate aerobe
organism that can survive with or without oxygen facultative anaerobe
type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter cells binary fission
form of sexual reproduction in which paramecia and some prokaryotes exchange genetic information conjugation
type of spore formed when a bacterium produces a thick internal wall that encloses its DNA and a portion of its cytoplasm endospore
process of converting nitrogen gas into ammonia nitrogen fixation
particle made up of nucleic acid, protein, and in some cases lipids that can replicate only by infecting living cells virus
any eukaryote that is not a plant, an animal, or a fungus protist
outer protein coat of a virus capsid
virus that infects bacteria bacteriophage
the viral DNA that is embedded in the host cell's DNA prophage
virus that contains RNA as its genetic information retrovirus
disease-causing agent pathogen
a preparation of weakened or killed pathogens vaccine
compound that blocks the growth and reproduction of bacteria antibiotic
single-stranded RNA molecule that has no surrounding capsids viroid
infectious particle made up of protein rather than RNA or DNA prion
temporary projection of cytoplasm, or a “false foot,” used by some protists for feeding or movement pseudopod
swim with a flagella zooflagellates
move by extensions of their cytoplasm sarcodines
move by extensions of their cytoplasm ciliates
do not move on their own at all sporozoans
Created by: 100critter