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Neuro block 1


__________ – main input path from muscle receptors and joints for Unconscious Proprioception Inferior Cerebellar Peduncle (Restiform Body)
important in maintaining balance and vestibulo-ocular reflexes Medial and Inferior Vestibular Nuclei
For brain arousal, ocular reflexes, autonomic function .Lesion -> coma! Reticular Formation
informs the cerebellum what the Intended movement is – the cerebellum uses this information to compare with the Actual movement Middle Cerebellar Peduncle
-> Actual movement Inferior Cerebellar peduncle
______ ______ receive information about an intended movement from the Cerebral Cortex Pontine Nuclei
___________ Fibers carry this information to the cerebellum via the large Middle Cerebellar Peduncle Pontocerebellar
Inferior Colliculus – for ________sensations and reflexes to head and neck auditory
Superior Colliculus – ________ reflexes to head and neck, visual
_____ ______ contains cortico-spinal (cortex to spinal cord) and cortico-bulbar (cortex to brainstem motor nuclei) tracts for movement Cerebral Crus
Mammillary Bodies – Important in ______ formation – part of Limbic system. * Chronic alcoholism -> damage here ->______impairment memory
_____ _______ – one of the basal ganglia; degeneration leads to Parkinsonism Substantia Nigra
______ ______ Important in movement, especially flexors of upper arms.* Its presence in a stroke patient -> spastic flexion of upper arms Red Nucleus –
________ - a relay station in thalamus for audition Medial Geniculate Nucleus
________– relay station in thalamus for vision Lateral Geniculate nucleus
The ______ _______ includes the crus cerebri (cerebral crus, plural = crura), substantia nigra, midbrain tegmentum and pretectum, but NOT the tectum. cerebral peduncle
The ______ ______ _____ has a powerful excitatory influence on the Cerebellum (a.k.a. “Principal Olivary Nucleus”)Tells cerebellum what is the intended movement Inferior Olivary Nucleus
_____ _____ _____helps to maintain gaze on an object when the body is in motion?kept my gaze centered as my head was turning AND kept my neck positioned Middle Vestibular Nucleus
helped keep my gaze centered Superior vestibular Nucleus
helped keep my neck positioned Inferior Vestibular Nucleus
kept me from falling, Avoids MLF – rather, uses Vestibulospinal tract. Lateral Vestibular Nucleus (Deiter’s)
Lateral Vestibular Nucleus (Deiter’s) uses _______ tract Vestibulospinal
suprachiasmatic nucleus (hypothalamus) is important for ______ _____ circadian rhythms
_______colliculus, keeps eyes fixed on object of interest, via head and neck reflexes superior
____ _______ (in midbrain) for oculomotor reflexes, e.g. pupillary light reflex pretectal nucleus
_____ ______ _____ is part of the thalamus * It does the pre-processing and sorting of different types of visual inputs from the Retinal Ganglion cells LGN (lateral geniculate nucleus, a.k.a “body”)
_____ _____ ______ pre-ganglionic parasympathetic neurons to pupillary constrictor and ciliary muscles to lens -> constriction of pupil and accommodation Edinger-Westphal nucleus[EWN]
____ _____ crossing of axons serving nasal portions of each retina (temporal portion of visual field) Optic Chiasm
______ _____ - contains 1* primary ganglion cell axons AFTER chiasm on the way to LGN Optic Tract
– motor nucleus and nerve controlling superior oblique muscle -ipsilateral Trochlear nucleus and nerve (IV)
– motor nucleus and nerve controlling lateral rectus muscle- ipsilateral Abducens nucleus and nerve (VI)
_____ _____ separates two gyri of visual cortex – cuneate and lingual Calcarine sulcus
Area 17 – ______ ____ _____ Primary Visual Cortex
______ _______ results from the repeated pairing of a neutral (conditioned) stimulus with one that evokes a response (unconditioned stimulus), such that the neutral stimulus eventually comes to evoke the response. Classical conditioning
A natural or _____ _______behavior) is elicited by a learned stimulus(a cue from an internal or external event). reflexive response(
____ _____ concept of elimination of a behavior by refusing to reinforce it. The best example of this is a child's tantrum. Parents react to tantrums, which is why they often work, but the point of the tantrum is primarily attention. An extinction burst
______ ______The extinguished response does not entirely disappear and may reappear at any point when the tone is presented again after a pause. Spontaneous Recovery:
A _______ is some type of response or “consequence” that immediately follows a targeted behavior. reinforcement
Presenting a stimulus that increases the probability of the behavior that came before it (Giving a reward for a behavior.) Give a rat a food pellet every time it completes a maze. Give a child a sticker on every homework assignment turned in “on-time”. Positive Reinforcement
____ _____-The organism learns a response that is instrumental in getting out of some place or changing some kind of setting in which it prefers not to be. Escape conditioning
_____ _____-Make a response in the absence of a stimulus, to prevent it from happening. The kind of learning in which a response to a cue is instrumental in avoiding a painful experience. Avoidance conditioning
______ ______: Removing an aversive stimulus (something that causes pain or anxiety), which increases the probability of the behavior preceding it. Negative Reinforcement
______ is the delivery of an aversive stimulus (a) Or the removal of a positive stimulus (b) As the consequence of a response Punishment
_____ repeated presentations of the same stimulus reduce responsiveness – often presented in hierarchical steps. Habituation:
_______ repeated presentation of a the same stimulus increases responsiveness Sensitization:
______exposure, patients are exposed to a hierarchy of anxiety generating events until they are more comfortable. in-vivo
Achieves final target behavior by reinforcing successive approximations of the desired response. Reinforcement is gradually modified to move behaviors from the more general to the specific responses desired. shaping
Increasing doses of the fear provoking stimulus are paired w/a relaxing stimulus to induce a relation response. Bc. one cannot simultaneously be fearful & relaxed, the person shows less anxiety when exposed to the fear-provoking stimulus in the future Systematic Desensitization
Classical conditioning is used to pair a maladaptive but pleasurable stimulus w/an aversive or painful stimulus so that the 2 become associated. The person stops engaging in the maladaptive behavior, Bc it automatically provokes an unpleasant response. Aversive Conditioning
The person is exposed to actual (_____) or imagined (_______) overwhelming dose of the feared stimulus. Through the process of habituation the person becomes accustomed to the stimulus and is no longer afraid. Flooding , Implosion
Through the process of operant conditioning the desired behavior (e.g. shaving) is reinforced by a reward or positive reinforcement. The person increases the desirable behavior to gain the reward. Token Economy
The person is given ongoing physiologic information (e.g., blood pressure measurement) which acts as a reinforcement (blood pressure drops). person uses this information along with relaxation techniques to control visceral changes (e.g., heart rate). Biofeedback
used to treat agoraphobia graded exposure and _____ can reduce the fear of being in crowded places flooding
Using a system of starting to expose the person to something which creates distress for that person by starting with limited exposure and building up to full exposure. Systematic Desensitization
Removing reinforcement gradually without the patient being able to notice or discern the difference Fading
Behavior you do a lot (or prefer) can be used to reinforce behaviors you do not do very often or do not want to do. Example: “Eat your spinach and you can have some dessert.” Premack’s Principle
A condition known as _______ ______ develops when an organism learns that no behavioral pattern can influence the environment and they must live in a world where pain can be inflicted at any time. learned helplessness
Modeling others : Example: In group therapy, patients model thoughts and behaviors for others – this is often why Group Therapy works so well. Observational Learning / Social Learning:
(Birth – 18 months) Objectives: To establish a trusting dependence on nursing and sustaining objects, to establish comfortable expression and gratification of oral libidinal needs without excessive conflict or ambivalence. Pleasure centers on the mouth Oral Stage
(18 months – 3 years) conflicts over anal control & the struggle with the parent over retaining or expelling feces in toilet training & gives rise to increased ambivalence, together w/ a struggle over separation, individuation, & independence. Anal Stage
(3-6 years) A primary focus of sexual interests, stimulation, and excitement in the genital area. Phallic Stage
Sexual interests are quiescent as well as a sublimation of libidinal & aggressive energies into energetic learning & play activities - exploring the environment,becoming proficient in dealing w/ the world of things & persons around them. It is a period fo Latency Stage (6 -11 typically, but up to13 years)
(Puberty on) Description: Maturation of sexual interest Genital Stage
Ruled by the pleasure principle No awareness of reality Contains all drives – aggressive, sexual, death Drives and Instincts – are forces in the ______ Id
negative force driving toward aggressive and destructive behaviors Thanatos
driving inner force related to sexual urges and preservation of species Eros
concept of psychic energy that drives individuals to experience sensual pleasure Libido
“Who I should be" Second structure to develop Operates on the reality principle.Provides reality testing. Defends against anxiety. Monitors the quality of interpersonal relations. Mediates conflict among the id, ego and superego Ego
“What I should NOT do”.Third structure to develop – in some persons, does not develop. Based on self-criticism concerning moral values. Most functions are unconscious. Self-punishment and self-praise based on ego ideal Superego
Actually, it’s more accurate to say the _____ _____ is a production of the ego, while _____ ______ emanates from the id and may rule the ego if a person has not become mature and realistic. reality principle, pleasure principle
weighs the costs & benefits of an action before deciding to act upon or abandon an impulse. person dieting chooses not to give into cravings Bc she knows that satisfying cravings, & thus satisfying the pleasure principle, is short-term empty satisfaction Reality testing
Unwilling or unable to recount memories Resistance
Excluding distressing memories from the conscious Repression
Recover and verbalize suppressed feelings "talking it out" Abreaction
Change in energy state (evidence of an emotional release) crying, laughing, smiling, sigh of relief Catharsis
releasing of uncensored thought through associated memories – provides content for analysis and will be interpreted by the analyst Free Association
Unconscious mental techniques used by the Ego to keep conflicts out of the conscious mind. Decreases anxiety and maintains a person’s sense of safety, equilibrium, and self esteem. Defense Mechanisms
______ is result of unresolved conflicts between Id and Superego. Anxiety
is a primitive form of paranoia. is a shifting of one’s unacceptable thoughts, feelings and impulses within oneself onto someone else, so that those same thoughts, feelings, beliefs, and motivations are perceived as being possessed by the other. Projection
Perception of people or things in very extreme terms as all bad or all good ( e.g., God or the Devil) due to an intolerance of ambiguity. Seen in Borderline Personality Disorder. Splitting
An active refusal to recognize or acknowledge the full import or “feeling” state of reality. person insists on a distorted interpretation of reality that excludes unpleasant realizations. requires the collaboration of the conscious mind. Denial
Temporary or transient block in thinking, or an inability to remember. Associated with a momentary lapse. Blocking
Unconsciously patterning one’s behavior after that of someone more powerful, though not necessarily admired. The opposite of projection. Associated with the super-ego, being like parents. Introjection/Identification
Tendency to retreat into fantasy in order to resolve inner and outer conflicts. One reason fantasy computer games are so popular. Fantasy
Feelings are manifest as physical symptoms rather than psychological distress. Associated with somatoform disorders. Somatization
Temporary reversion of behavior to an earlier, less mature, more child-like behavior, rather than handling unacceptable impulses in a more adult way. Associated with enuresis, and primitive behaviors. Regression
Temporary drastic modification of one's personal identity or character to avoid emotional distress; separation or postponement of a feeling that normally would accompany a situation or thought. Taking a traumatic memory and putting it into another part Dissociation
Nonperformance or poor performance after setting up the expectation of performance. Regarded as a passive (indirect) expression of hostility. Passive-aggressive
Separation of feelings from ideas and events, for example, describing a murder with graphic details with no emotional response. Associated with a blunted affect. Isolation of Affect
concentrating on the intellectual components of a situation so as to distance oneself from the associated anxiety-provoking emotions; separation of emotion from ideas; thinking about wishes in formal, affectively bland terms and not acting on them; Intellectualization
Converting unconscious wishes or impulses that are perceived to be dangerous into their opposites; taking the opposite belief because the true belief causes anxiety. feel love, but show hate; “Girls have cooties.” Reaction Formation
Process of pulling thoughts into the unconscious and preventing painful or dangerous thoughts from entering consciousness; An idea or feeling is eliminated from conscious awareness. Associated with forgetting so that it is nonretrievable. Repression
Rational explanations are used to justify attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors that are unacceptable. The main show of this defense comes in the form of excuses, justification, a string of reasons. Rationalization
When we have experiences that are too painful to bear, is utilized to remove them from the awareness of the conscious mind. is a subconscious process, not a decision made by the conscious mind, but an instinctive reaction to trauma. Repression
Constructive service to others that brings pleasure and personal satisfaction – Service above one’s own needs. Altruism
Realistic planning for future discomfort. Anticipation
The use of comedy as an overt expression of ideas and feelings (especially those that are unpleasant to focus on or too terrible to talk about) without bringing discomfort to self or others. A pleasant release from anxiety. Humor
Transformation of negative emotions or instincts into positive actions, behavior, or emotion. Associated with acceptable outlets such as art, literature, mentoring, or long workouts in the gym. Sublimation
The conscious process of pushing thoughts into the preconscious; the conscious decision to delay paying attention to an emotion or need in order to cope with the present reality; able to later access uncomfortable or distressing emotions and accept them. Suppression
Cognitive Therapy follows the _____ model which stands for ..... ABC Model A: Activating Event B: Belief C: Consequence
Negative view of self, experience, and the future . ____________[disorder] Depressive Disorder
Inflated view of self, experience, and the future. ____________[ Hypomanic Episode
________ [disorder]: Fear of physical or psychological danger Anxiety Disorder
____________ disorder: Catastrophic misinterpretation of bodily and mental experiences Panic Disorder
Repeated warning or doubting about safety and repetitive acts to ward off the threat Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Danger in specific avoidable situations Phobias
______ _____ disorder: Negative bias, interference, and so forth by others Paranoid Personality Disorder
Concept of motor or sensory abnormality Conversion Disorder
Hopelessness and deficit in problem solving Suicidal Behavior
Fear of being fat or unshapely Anorexia Nervosa
Attribution of serious medical disorder Hypochondriasis
If it is true in one case, it applies to any case that is even slightly similar. [type of cognitive error] Over-generalizing
The only events that matter are failures, deprivations, negatives. Should measure self by errors, weaknesses. [type of cognitive error] Selective Abstraction
I am responsible for all bad things, failures [type of cognitive error] Excessive Responsibility
If it has been true in the past, it is always going to be true. [type of cognitive error] Assuming Temporal Causality
I am the center of everyone’s attention – especially my bad performances. I am the cause of misfortune.[type of cognitive error] Self-references
Always think of the worst. Its most likely to happen to you. [type of cognitive error] Catastrophic Thinking
Everything is either one extreme or another (black or white, good or bad). [type of cognitive error] Dichotomous Thinking
The ability to stay calm when confronted with adverse events, maintain behavioral control, and when upset to calm down in an appropriate period of time. Emotional Resilience
Responsible for assessing /mediating the “4 F’s”: Fight, flight, feeding, sex [fuck] lymbic system
4 major areas of the lymbic system [1]Olfactory cortex (olfaction) [2]Hippocampal formation (memory) [3]Amygdala (fear, aggression) [4]Hypothalamus (homeostasis)
Olfactory cortex _________ (olfaction) smell
Hippocampal formation (memory)
Amygdala _______ (fear, aggression)
Hypothalamus (homeostasis)
Input to Hippocampus is Directly – from ______ _______ Entorhinal Cortex
The__________ is involved in encoding/processing of explicit or declarative memory, hippocampus
So, patients with early Alzheimer’s disease have two areas of brain degeneration [1] Septal area, especially Nucleus Basalis of Meynert and [2]Hippocampus
Increased activity recorded in the septal area during orgasm On the other hand, lesions cause “septal rage” Septal nuclei
rare genetic condition “overly friendly” - impulsively engage in social situations fMRI shows decreased ________ activity in response to angry or scary faces. Could recognize and express all emotions Except Fear Urbach-Wiethe Disease: , amygdalar
bilateral damage to the Mesio-temporal lobes, especially the amygdalae,for example, encephalopathy)change in diet,Hypersexuality, Oral contact w/ inedible objects , Visual agnosia, Prosopagnosia (can’t recognize faces), Decreased anxiety w/ fear Klüver-Bucy syndrome
Thiamine (B1) deficiency, degeneration of the Mammillary bodies -> memory loss, degeneration of the Dorsal-median nucleus of the thalamus> confusion and confabulation. degeneration of portions of the cerebellum -> an ataxic gait Wernicke-Korsakoff’s encephalopathy
Poor Me. Worthless Me. I’m not good enough. I need (but I am not getting) are sayings of ________ Depression
You should not… They should...It’s not fair…It should not be this way... are sayings of ________ Anger
I can’t handle it if… What if..?are sayings of ________ Anxiety
I can’t stand it when… an expression of ______ Frustration
two main functions of the Hippocampus are ? [1]Memory formation – especially autobiographical and episodic (e.g. events, places, people, things) [2]A recognition of Place in the environment (like an internal GPS system)
The basic molecular difference between short-term and long-term memory is that long-term memory requires _______and growth. new protein synthesis
Two input pathways of the Hippocampal Circuit are Perforant & Alvear
in the lymbic system Papez circuit: Cingulum -> parahippocampal cortex ->entorhinal cortex -> Perforant path/Alvear path-> hippocampus -> Mammillary body-> ___________ ->Cingulate gyrus Anterior thalamic nucleus
in the lymbic system Papez circuit: Cingulum ->____________ ->entorhinal cortex -> Perforant path/Alvear path-> hippocampus -> Mammillary body->Anterior thalamic nucleus ->Cingulate gyrus parahippocampal cortex
in the lymbic system Papez circuit: Fornix ->_______ ->Septal nuclei (pleasure centers) and NAc (reward center) Precommissural
in the lymbic system Papez circuit: Fornix projects to-> _______-> mammillary body... Postcommissural
New memories cannot be stored (consolidated) _______ _______ caused by hippocampal lesions affects declarative memory only Anterograde amnesia
Old memories cannot be recalled/retrieved Thalamic lesions can cause_______ _______ without affecting new memory storage retrograde amnesia
These Three Cholinergic Nuclei degenerate early in Alzheimer’s Disease [1]N. Basalis of Meynert [2]Medial Septal nucleus [3] Nucleus of Diagonal Band of Broca
Amygdala -> ________-> hypothalamus Habenula
Processing Fear, Pain and Negative emotions are 3 Functions of ______: and Hyperactivity of it -> depression Habenula
Dopaminergic projections from _____to the _______, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala, are the most important component of the implicit or unconscious ‘wanting’ system. This is separate from ‘liking’ and forms the basis for addiction. ventral tegmental area -> nucleus accumbens
Created by: SabaMDJuan