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America Grows

Slavery, Sectionalism, Andrew Jackson/answers

This invention had huge ramifications for farming and industry nationwide Cotton Gin
As cotton production rose in the south, what happened to slavery? It increased along with the production of cotton.
Once farmers in the south realized the importance of cotton, how did that affect their other crops? They stopped growing other products.
How were Native American tribes affected by the cotton boom? They were pushed off their land.
What was the primary market for the South's cotton? Northeastern mills and England
Slavery importation was banned after 1808. How did the Southern farmers satisfy their need for additional slaves? Increased efforts to breed and smuggling.
What did the poor white farmers in the South think of Slavery? They supported it because they hoped to have slaves one day.
What was Frederick Douglass' description of a slave in the city? They were almost freemen.
How far north did Slavery extend in the United States? All the way to northern New Jersey
How could a Slave gain freedom in the South? Born free, freed by owner, bought their own freedom.
Even though freed slaves were "free' what rights were they denied? Right to vote, right to an education.
Once a slave was freed in the South, what were his freedoms in his home state? None, they had to leave that state once free.
Once freed, was a African-American safe in the Country? No, they could always be captured and sold back into slavery.
What was the basis of the culture as it developed among the slaves? Religious
How did the slave culture use "Spirituals"? As a code to plan escapes, or tell of the movements of their owner.
"Spirituals" was the fore-runner of this type of music Jazz and the Blues
While white ministers were preaching the biblical passage about obeying your master, what story captivated the slaves? The story of Moses
What was one of the great tragedies of slavery auctions? The loss of the family unit.
Why did slave owners not think twice about splitting husbands from wives and children? Slave marriages were not legally recognized by the states.
The most famous Slave Rebellion was led by this man: Nat Turner
As a result of slave rebellions, what steps did the south take to squash further unrest? Passed laws covering both slaves and free blacks: cannot buy weapons, cannot buy liquor, no religious services unless whites are present, and, anti-slavery publications from the north were prohibited from delivery by post offices.
Which statesman predicted the civil war years before it happened because of the fight over slavery? John C. Calhoun
What were the elements of the "American System"? Protective tariffs (buy American), establish a National Bank with a single currency, and improve the nation's transportation system.
How did John C. Calhoun envision binding the Republic together? Perfect system of roads and canals.
This canal made New York City what it is today because it linked the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean Erie Canal
Canals and roads improved communication and promoted this: National Pride
As Nationalism spread with improved lines of communication, what was the result on government? People began to move towards a larger role for the Federal Government over the States.
James Monroe, as President, took measures to exploit the nationalist spirit among Americans by doing this: Fixing our boundaries with Great Britain and Spain
What action caused major problems with Spain? The Louisiana Purchase because Spain did not grant approval.
Why did President Monroe order Gen. Jackson into Spanish Florida? To stop Seminole raids into Georgia's settlements
What choices did President Monroe give Spain regarding the Floridas? Either fix the problem with the Seminoles or give them to us.
The Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 solved three issues with Spain: Gave all of Florida to the U.S. Spain gave up claims to the Oregon Territory, and set the boundary in the west
Why would Spain give so much away to the United States in the Treaty process? Spain was having major issues with it's colonies in Latin and South America (Rebellion)
What is "Sectionalism" Loyalty to the interests of your own region, or section of the country, rather than the nation.
What element of society played the largest part in the rise of Sectionalism? Economics
Why does Sectionalism come to a head with the entry of Missouri as a state? There were 11 free and 11 slave states, Missouri wanted to be a slave state, which would upset the balance and keep slavery from ever being abolished.
Who comes up with the solution to the problem of Missouri and Slavery? Henry Clay
What compromise solved the issue of Missouri as a slave or free state? The Missouri Compromise
How was the issue of Missouri's statehood resolved? Maine was added as a free state to keep the balance and slavery was prohibited north of Missouri's southern boundary for future states.
What was Thomas Jefferson's view of the Missouri Compromise? He was depressed by the outcome.
What was President Monroe's response to growing unrest in Latin America and the colonization of North America by Russia? The Monroe Doctrine
What does the Monroe Doctrine state: Americas are closed to further colonization, any attempt would be considered a threat to the U.S., and if you stay out of our affairs we will stay out of Europe's affairs.
What did the Monroe Doctrine demonstrate as a policy of the U.S.? Protector of Latin America as a World Power
Where did Andrew Jackson gain his fame? The Battle of New Orleans
What did the common man think of Andrew Jackson They considered him one of them
What was the "Corrupt Bargain" Adams won the Presidency because he made a deal with Henry Clay to get his supporters
What happens to the Democratic-Republican party as a result of the ill feelings between Jackson and Adams? It splits into two parties: Democrats for Jackson and National Republicans for Adams
What tragedy hit Jackson as a result of the vicious personal attacks during the 1828 election? His wife Rachel died of a heart attack.
Who were Andrew Jackson's supporters? Common man, western farmers, workers in large cities.
What restriction was lifted on voting that made it possible for Jackson to win the Presidency? No longer required to own land. Still had to be a white male.
How did Jackson view government under his vision of democracy? Limited government with a strong President
Thomas Jefferson saw democracy as a system of government for the people by educated leaders. What was Jackson's view of democracy Government by the people.
Why did Jackson have to flee the White House for fear of his life at the Inaugural party? Everyone (15,000) went to the White House reception and they all wanted to congratulate him.
What was the "Spoils System" Replacing Government officials with friends regardless of qualifications.
Which Native American Tribe was closely linked to America in many aspects to include a Constitution based on the US Constitution? Cherokee
What event caused pressure to remove the Cherokee from their land? Gold was discovered there.
Why did Jackson feel that he could move the Native American Tribes? Felt they were conquered subjects
What choice did Jackson give the Native Americans? Adopt white culture and become citizens or move to the western territories.
What did Jackson prohibit the Native Americans from doing? Having their own government within the boundaries of the U.S.
Jackson began moving the native American Tribes west after passing this act Indian Removal Act of 1830
What was the long term result of this removal to western lands? Changed the relationship between whites and Native Americans forever.
Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska were identified as: Indian Territory
What did the Cherokee Nation do in response to the removal action? Appealed to the US Supreme Court
The Supreme Court sided with the Cherokee Nation. What was Jackson's response? He ignored it
What was Jackson's response to John Marshall's decision? "John Marshall made his decision... now let's see him enforce it."
Jackson refused to negotiate with the Cherokee Nation and sent in the Army to move them. 4000 died. What did this become known as The Trail of Tears
Why did so many die on the year long march to the Indian Territory? They were moved out of their houses with only the clothes on their back.
Which Sauk Chief fought to regain his nation's territory in Illinois? Chief Blackhawk
Why don't Northerners want cheap land in the west? They would lose workers
Why do westerners want cheap land? Gain population become stronger politically
Why doesn't the south want roads and canals? They are built with tariffs from Europe which made the goods they needed more expensive
Why does the north like high tariffs? Decreases competition
Why was the "Tariff of Abominations" hated by the south? South feels that everything is focused on the north and they are getting destroyed economically. Everything they needed cost too much.
Which state was hit by the Tariff of Abominations hardest? South Carolina
What was the response of the leaders of South Carolina to these high tariffs? Leave the Union. AND THIS IS 1828!
John C. Calhoun came up with this idea to save South Carolina and keep it in the Union Doctrine of Nullification
What did the Doctrine of Nullification state? States can reject laws they consider Unconstitutional
What would happen to Federal Laws within a state when the state considers it illegal? It would be void within the state's boundaries
Under the Doctrine of Nullification, states could decide whether a law passed by Congress was Constitutional. This is referred to as: States Rights
John C. Calhoun wrote the theory of Nullification but did not sign it. Why not? He figured it would be a problem since he was Vice-President at the time.
In the Webster-Hayne Debate, what was Webster's position? (he's from Massachusetts) The people are the Union, not the States
In the Webster-Hayne Debate, what was Hayne's position? (he's from South Carolina) Real enemies of the Union are those stealing from the States.
What does Jackson do to try to keep South Carolina in the Union? Asks Congress to reduce the tariff.
South Carolina is still not happy with a reduced tariff, what do they do now? Nullify the tariffs, build an Army, and threaten secession
What is Jackson's response to South Carolina's threat to secede? "...Hang the first man of them I can get my hands on."
Who comes to the rescue over tariffs by coming up with a Compromise Tariff of 1833? Henry Clay
What does the Compromise Tariff of 1833 actually do? Drops the tariff gradually over 10 years to get it back to 20% by 1842.
Who writes the Compromise Tariff of 1833 with Clay? John C. Calhoun
What is South Carolina's response to the Compromise Tariff of 1833 after Congress passes it? They back down.
Who runs the Second National Bank of the United States? Nicholas Biddle
What is the function of the Second Bank of the US? Control the nation's money supply and set policy outside Congress
What does Jackson call the bank? Monster of Corruption
Why does Jackson REALLY hate the bank? He lost money in earlier financial deals
Biddle asked for an early renewal of his charter to run the bank. What does Jackson do? He vetoes the renewal
After Jackson's re-election, how does he address the banks? Deposits government funds in state run banks
What were Jackson's state run banks of choice called? "pet banks"
How does Biddle respond to Jackson? He makes it harder for people to borrow money
What suffered most from the squabble between Biddle and Jackson? The Economy
What happened when the "Pet Banks" issued too much paper money? Dollar worth less and prices rose
What happens when prices go up and the value of money goes down? Inflation
Jackson wanted to counter the problem of too much paper money. What did he require? All land sales to be in Gold or Silver.
Martin Van Buren takes over for Jackson in 1836. What happens? Panic of 1837
What did the people demand that caused the Panic of 1837? Wanted only gold or silver in exchange for paper money
What did the banks do in response to the demands of the people for gold and silver? They ran out of gold and silver and closed.
The government went to the State banks to get their money because there was no more National Bank, but the state banks couldn't pay. What happened then? Banks closed and we had a big Depression.
What were the major effects of the Depression? People had no money, Manufacturers had no customers so 90% of the factories close
When the factories close, what is the result? Workers have no money to buy essentials. Hunger, shelters and death happens
Which area was hit hardest by the Depression? Cities where all the workers were.
How did farmers fare during the depression? They could grow enough food for themselves but no one to buy excess.
How was politics affected by the Depression? Van Buren got all the blame: one term President
A new party opposes Van Buren and wins. What was its name? The Whig party
What is the major objection of the Whig Party? Opposed to excessive power in the Executive Branch
What was the name given to President Jackson by the Whigs? King Andrew
The Whigs selected William Henry Harrison as their Presidential candidate. What was his claim to fame? Hero of the battle of Tippecanoe
What was the slogan of the Whig Party for the election of 1840? "Tippecanoe and Tyler too"
What dumb decision does Harrison make on Inauguration Day? Speaks for two hours on a cold, rainy March day without a hat or coat.
How long does Harrison serve as President? 30 days
Who was the LAST Whig President? John Tyler who took office when Harrison died.