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Ch. 7

Rock Cycle

The ___________________ is the changing of rocks over time. rock cycle
The process of moving sediment to other places is called __________________________. erosion
The bottom layer of soil is called _______________________. bedrock
__________________________forms from the remains of decayed plants and animals. Humus
A layer of soil is called a ______________________. horizon
The breaking down of the earth’s surface into pieces is called _________________________. weathering
A ________________________ is a solid substance that occurs naturally in rocks or in the ground. mineral
_________________________ rock forms when melted rock cools and hardens. Igneous
What causes sinkholes? water dissolves underground rock
What are some of the different textures of soil? rough, smooth
What landforms are created when 2 of the earth’s plates push against each other? mountains
Which substance is most of the earth’s crust made from? rock
What property do all soil horizons share? partly weathered rock
What causes weathering? water (waves, ice glaciers, rain), wind, living things (plant roots, animals)
What causes erosion? wind, water, glaciers
What are the different properties of minerals? streak, luster, color, hardness, magnetic, cleavage, crystal pattern
Name the 4 soil layers. humus, topsoil, subsoil, and bedrock
What can the color of soil tell us about where it came from? Light colored soil Dark colored soil light colored soil - desert where there is little plant and animal life to form humus dark colored soil - forest or grassland where there is much plant and animal life to form humus which makes the soil darker and fertile
How would a scientist tell if a rock was gold or pyrite? gold - softer and leaves a gold streak pyrite - harder and leaves a greenish black streak
What causes smooth stones to form? rocks that are in a river or stream and get tumbled and bumped into each other - wathered by water
Name the 3 groups that rocks are classified into and how each is formed. sedimentary - formed from weathered rock and then is squeezed and stuck together metamorphic - rock that is changed by great heat and pressure igneous - rock that is melted and hardened
Compare and contrast rocks and minerals. rocks and minerals are both solid substances found in nature and they are both made of minerals minerals are made of only one substance and rocks are made from more than one mineral
Which type of weathering and erosion does not help create new landforms? Why? Pressure Waves Plant roots Wind plant roots - they only break things down, they do not lbuild new landforms wind can create dunes waves can build new beaches pressure can create metamorphic rock
Created by: Mrs. Furlong