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PR Midterm Review

What is the definition of public relations? A strategic communications process meant to influence public opinion and build mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and its publics
Planning processes -RACE (Research, *Action, Communication, Evaluation) -ROSIE (Research, Objectives, Strategies, Implementation, Evaluation) -RPIE (Research, Planning, Implementation, Evaluation)
Seven functions of public relations practice Writing, planning, researching, publicity, media relations, consumer relations, government relations
PR professionals must be... Pro-communications, advocates for their organizations, oriented toward counseling, ethical, willing to take risks, positive
Ivy Lee "The father of modern public relations" - assisted John Rockefeller by humanizing him in the eyes of the public after the Ludlow Massacre
Edward L. Bernays Taught the first PR course (at NYU in 1923)
P. T. Barnum Circus operator with propaganda-heavy PR strategies
The Creel Committee A government agency meant to spread patriotic sentiments and raise support for America's participation in WWI
Arthur W. Page The first corporate PR practitioner, promoted AT&T, favored market-oriented PR
Factors influencing the spread of public relations The growth of big institutions; heightened public awareness and media usage; increasing incidents of social change, conflict, and confrontation (rights movements/activism, consumerism, etc.); globalization and the increasing importance of public opinion
Goals of communication To inform, to persuade, to motivate, to build mutual understanding
Theories of communication -Two-step flow - an organization sends a message to the media, which sends it to the public -Concentric circle - ideas evolve gradually from various thinkers to the public at large
Types of communication 1. Press agentry/publicity - one way, source to reciever 2. Public information - one way, to inform rather than persuade 3. Two-way asymmetric - you give me info but I don't act on it 4. Two-way symmetric - I look for and act on input
Message theories 1. The content is the message - by far the most popular theory 2. The medium is the message - e.g. credibility of the source 3. The person is the message - the quality of someone's speaking ability
Communication can... Change attitudes, crystallize attitudes/motivate previously-considered action, create doubt, do nothing
Public opinion The expression of an attitude held in common by the great majority of the public - PR attempts to influence it
Types of factors that influence attitudes Personal, cultural, educational, familial, religious, social class-based, racial
Cantril's laws of public opinion Highly sensitive to major events, influenced by actions, turn to leadership in hard times, more likely to change when self-interest is involved, stronger regarding end goals than methods of reaching them, enlightened when people have access to info
Elements of a PR plan Environment --> business objectives --> public relations objectives --> public relations strategies --> public relations programs/tactics
Ethical models -Attorney/adversary - client's best interests are paramount, compromising in a hostile environment -Enlightened self-interest - public good is paramount, corporate social responsibility, you do well when you do good
Six ethical values of PR Advocacy, honesty, expertise, independence, loyalty, fairness
Recent challenges to the First Amendment 1. Jailing of a NYT reporter in 2005 for not revealing confidential sources 2. The Bush administration's monitoring phone records of suspected domestic Al Qaeda sympathizers 3. The outrage after a Danish newspaper published cartoons mocking Mohammed
Defamation Includes libel (printed falsehoods) and slander (spoken falsehoods), falsehood must be communicated via print/broadcast or electronically, subject must be easily identified and be able to prove injury/loss, person must have acted recklessly + with malice
Insider trading Acting on information about a company's securities that has not yet been disclosed to the general investing public - the SEC's overriding concern = all investors have an equal chance to act on information, which must be fairly and immediately disclosed
Considerations when dealing with litigation -Learn the process, develop a message strategy, settle quickly, keep the focus positive -Be an equal partner w/ legal counsel, make comments, take initiative in making announcements, convince the client that winning the case may not restore credibility
Types of applied research -Strategic research - used in program development -Evaluative research - used to determine whether or not a PR program has reached its goals and objectives
Elements of a survey Sample, questionnaire, interview, analysis of results
Designing a good questionnaire Keep it short, use structured questions, using simple words, not asking loaded questions
Metrics for measuring PR outcomes -Awareness and comprehension -Recall and retention -Attitude and preference -Behavior
Paid v. owned v. earned media -Paid - advertising /advertorial, total control but less credible + harder to grab attention -Owned - Channels you operate, controllable + less costly but sometimes can't be trusted -Earned - Third-party endorsement, most credible but no control
Created by: ejrasmus