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Final Exam Review

2nd semester review - Human body unit

What are the organs of the digestive tract? mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum
What are "accessory organs" for digestion, that produce or provide substances that help in digestion? gall bladder, pancreas and liver
Where is water from the food your eat absorbed in the body? large intestine
flap of tissue in the heart controlling direction of blood flow, how many in the heart? valve, there are 4
vessels carrying blood to the heart vein
large vessel carrying all oxygenated blood out of the heart aorta
vessels carrying blood away from the heart arteries
small vessels that exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide with other parts of the body capillaries
Smooth muscle contractions of digestive tract that pushes food along peristalsis
coats that digestive tract, especially the stomach to prevent ulcer formation mucus
main source of fuel for the body glucose
What are examples of mechanical digestion? mouth (teeth chewing, mixing with saliva), stomach (churning of muscles smashes food into chyme)
Where does chemical digestion take place? mouth (salivary amylase starts to break carbs into sugar), stomach (chemicals start to digest proteins into amino acids) and Small Intestine (has the MOST digestion, using enzymes from pancreas to finish digestion of carbs, proteins and fats)
actions that occur automatically without the brains’ direct command reflexes
regulation of internal environment to keep conditions stable homeostasis
Small projections on the folds of the small intestine that help to increase surface area for absorption of nutrients villi
Air sacs of the lungs that help to increase surface area for diffusion of oxygen alveoli
A sheet of muscle that controls breathing diaphragm
What "accessory" digestive organs are not a part of the digestive tract? pancreas, gall bladder, liver
Where does gas exchange occur? between alveoli and capillaries AND betwen capillaries and body cells
Which body system transforms (changes) food into forms that are usable by the body? digestive
Which body system is responsible for intake of oxygen and release of waste carbon dioxide? respiratory
Which body system transports oxygen, carbon dioxide and nutrients throughout the body? circulatory
Which body system moves body parts? muscular
The process of a substance spreading out in all directions (including passing through membranes) until evenly distributed is diffusion
What process provides energy to all cells? cellular respiration
What are reactants in cellular respiration? glucose and oxygen (GO)
What are products in cellular respiration? energy (ATP), carbon dioxide and water (eCOW)
Where does cellular respiration take place? mitochondria of all cells
What is the path of air during inhalation? nose (or mouth), pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
What is a device that measures lung capacity? spirometer
Do you exhale all of the air in your lungs? No. There is always some residual volume in your lungs to keep them from collapsing.
State the path of blood flow Vena cava, R atrium, valve, R ventricle, valve, Pulm Artery, lungs, Pulm vein, L atrium, valve, L ventricle, valve, aorta, body
What is a neuron? A Nerve cell. Know what it looks like
What is a synapse? Gaps between two nerve cells
How does information cross the gaps between nerve cells? The electrical signal along the nerve cells triggers chemicals caused NEUROTRANSMITTERS to be released. If enough of them bind to receptors on the other side, then the electrical signal will be sent at the next neuron.
Which body system collects, interprets and responds to information about the internal and external environment? nervous
how many chambers are in the heart? 4 (R and L atrium, R and L ventricle)
What is the largest vein? vena cava
What is plasma? liquid part of blood
What do red blood cells do? carry oxygen (and carbon dioxide)
What do white blood cells do? fight invaders in the body
What do platelets do? clump to clot blood to stop bleeding, become a part of scabs
Created by: jenhaugen01