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exam 2

Project Management Exam #2

QuestionAnswer
Most heuristic solution methods start with the __________ and analyze resource usage period by period, resource by resource. PERT/CPM schedule
This project plan element lists all milestone events. It identifies the estimated time for each task and is used to construct the master project schedule. schedule
If projects include repetitive tasks with significant human input, the __________ rate should be factored into the cost estimate. learning
_________ relies on well-known statistical correlations between various factors such as the total cost of a house relative to the square feet of living area. Parametric estimating
__________ law suggests that work expands to fill the allotted time. Parkinson's
Assume two activities, printing and binding. Printing is a predecessor of binding. If printing is _______, then binding will start late by whatever amount of lateness is bequeathed to it by printing. late
One of the problems that Goldratt observed was that if an activity has slack time, the task might become delayed until the slack is removed. This is referred to as __________. the student syndrome
The advantage of the______ process is that it is generally associated with participative management. bottom-up
This project plan element should include profit and competitive goals as well as technical goals. objectives
When we change technology, we may also be changing the level of __________ in carrying out the activity. risk, money, time 4) all of the above
A person requires eight hours to complete a work element on the first attempt. That person has a learning rate of 90 percent for this work element. This person should require __________ hours to complete this work element on the fourth attempt. 6.48
_____ aims to minimize the period-by-period variations in resource loading by shifting tasks within their slack allowances. The purpose is to create a smoother distribution of resource usage. Resource leveling
_______ is the tendency for the project objectives to be changed with little or no discussion with other parties actively engaged in the project. Scope creep
In a network, if the delay of an activity will delay completion of the project, the activity is called a(n) __________. critical
If a project budget is over funded, it will often __________. produce waste and encourage slack management
__________ costs vary with output. Direct
The __________ heuristic provides a general solution for critical path and time and is usually the default rule for a schedule. as soon as possible
The __________ of a project includes the objectives of the project as well as the time and cost required to complete the project to the customer's satisfaction. scope
Each time the output doubles, the worker hours per unit decrease to a fixed percentage of their previous value. That percentage is called the __________ rate. learning
In AON diagrams, a(n) __________ is a point where one or more lines (arrows) begin or terminate, commonly used for depicting an event or activity. node
A(n) __________ displays the organizational units responsible for each of the various work elements in the WBS. OBS
The __________ chart is a tree diagram used to represent a hierarchical plan. Gozinto
According to the authors, any project must contain all of the following EXCEPT __________. a 'ballpark' estimate
In AOA networks, an activity of zero duration is called a(n) ________. dummy activity
In CPM(PDM), an activity can be conducted at a normal pace or an expedited pace, known as ________, at a greater cost. crashing
The __________ is a specialized view of the action plan that focuses on who has what responsibility for each project task. linear responsibility chart
If the appropriate scheduling equation for task A of a project were W = D * U, and it was initialized so that W = 40d, D = 10d, and U = 4 resources, and task A is an effort-driven activity, correctly balance this (one of 2) D = 8d
2 of 2 equation if the value for U is changed from 4 to 5. To balance the equation, the altered variable and its new value are __________. D = 8d
project plan requires 50 hours of labor each by four carpenters. The carpenters paid $15 per hour,incur overhead rate equal to 80 percent of their direct labor charges. 1 of 2 $5,940
The total cost would be __________ if the carpenters consume 10 percent of the workday performing personal activities. 2 of 2 $5,940
The __________is a list of the project activities with major activities broken down into subactivities. WBS
The __________ chart shows planned and actual progress for a number of tasks displayed against a horizontal timescale. Gantt
Thoughtless optimism, the "student syndrome," and multitasking to reduce idle time can each contribute to __________. optimistic bias
_____________ issues are present when bidders "low-ball" a bid or when some bidders get a "last look." Ethical
__________ is one possible way to check the nature and impacts of interactions between probabilistic paths in a network. Simulation
When crashing a project, our first task is to develop __________. a table or graph of the cost of a project as a function of the project's possible completion dates
__________ was developed by the U.S. Navy while the __________ was developed by __________. PERT, CPM, DuPont
_________ is a visual approach that closely mirrors how the human brain records and stores information that can help tap the creative potential of the entire project team. Mind mapping
In the AOA network, circles depict ________. events
Slack is also known as __________. float
A(n) __________ is the conversion of the project work breakdown structure into an operating timetable. schedule
Task F has duration of 10 days and an earliest start date of 20 days. Based on the given data, determine the early finish duration for task F. 10 days
The pattern of deviations in cost and usage used for exception reporting to management is called __________. variances
The _________ was developed by Henry Gantt in 1917. Gantt Chart
The __________ charge is composed of costs of senior management, various data functions, and any other expenses not included in overhead. Often, these charges are a fixed percentage of either the direct costs or the total of all direct and indirect costs. G&A
Which of the following effects will be observed in a network if a date-constrained project is scheduled from the ending date constraint using the "as late as possible" heuristic? It would never be possible to override the "as late as possible" heuristic with a "must start no later than" date constraint.
Which of the following is NOT a software tool commonly used to manage projects, especially in relation to time and cost budgets? Microsoft Word
The success of the project launch meeting is dependent on the existence of __________. a well-defined set of objectives for the project
A project manager must ______ as a type of risk response planning in order to soften the danger of a threat by reducing the likelihood that it will occur or by reducing its impact if it does occur. mitigate
A useful tool for facilitating the management of changes to a project's scope is the requirements traceability matrix
Studies have shown that the __________ scheduling heuristic method usually results in the minimum amount of project schedule slippage, best utilization of facilities, and minimum total system occupancy time. as soon as possible
The authors identify __________ estimation errors as the two types of generic estimation errors. random and biased
Three important parameters used to assess the effectiveness of a scheduling system include schedule slippage, in-process inventory, and __________ schedule utilization
The shortest time in which the entire network can be completed is referred to as the __________. critical time of the network
The principal reason why a project manager is surprised by resource constraints on a project is the failure to include __________ in risk identification activities. resource availability
The __________ form of budgeting has the advantage of using individuals closer to the work to provide estimates of resource requirements. bottom-up budgeting
_________ times result from an attempt to expedite the activity by the application of additional resources. Crash
The arrangement of all activities (and, in some cases, events) in a project arrayed in their logical sequence and represented by arcs and nodes is called a __________. network
A(n) __________ is a specific task or set of tasks that are required by the project, use up resources, and take time to complete. activity
The __________ technique overlaps the design and builds phases of a project to expedite its completion. fast-tracking
If a project budget is underfunded, it will often __________. frustrate committed stakeholders
_________is an approach that breaks the planning task down into the activities that must be done in each managerial level of the organization. Typically, the upper level sets the objectives for the next lower level. Hierarchical planning
Created by: ChickenLady