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Federalism

Chapter 4 from Magruder's American Government

TermDefinition
Federalism a system of government in which a written constitution divides the power of government on a territorial basis between the national, state and local governments.
division of powers powers between national, state and local government are distributed.
delegated powers only those powers granted to a government by the Constitution.
expressed powers these are delegated to the National Government because it is clearly written inside the U.S. Constitution. They are also call the "enumerated powers"
implied powers these are not expressly stated in the Constitution but are reasonably suggested within the Constitution.
inherent powers belong to the National Government because these are powers or "natural laws" that a typical government would possess.
reserved powers these are the powers that the Constitution does not grant to the National Government and does not deny to the States.
concurrent powers those powers that both the National Government and the States possess and exercise.
The Supremacy Clause it is a provision within the U.S. Constitution that states that Federal power is supreme over the powers of the states.
McCulloch v. Maryland This supreme court cases gave the Supreme Court the right to review any cases concerning the U.S. Constitution and granted the court to be the supreme law of the land"
enabling act an act directing the people of the territory to frame a proposed State constitution.
act of admission an act creating a new state within the United States.
grants-in-aid programs grants of federal money or other resources to the States and or their cities, counties and other local units.
revenue sharing a form of federal monetary aid (money) that the federal government gave to the states from federal tax revenue. About 83 billion dollars from 1972 to 1987
categorical grants a form of federal monetary aid given for a specific purpose.
block grants a form of federal monetary aid given for a broad purpose
project grants grants made to the states for a special program (training and employment programs)
interstate compacts with permission from Congress, the states can make an agreement with foreign states.
Full Faith and Credit Clause Constitution's requirement that each State accept the public acts, records, and judicial proceeding of every other State.
Williams v. North Carolina is a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that the federal government determines marriage and divorce statuses between state lines
extradition the legal process by which a fugitive from justice in one State is returned to that State.
privileges and immunities clause no state can draw unreasonable distinctions between its own residents and those persons who happen to live in other states.
federal system policy-making government system in which power moves to and from the local, state and federal governments.
unitary system policy-making government system in which power moves from the federal government down through the state governments and ends at the local governmental level.
confederal system policy-making government system in which power moves from the local government through the state government and ends at the federal government level.
10th Amendment The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people
dual federalism A constitutional theory that the national government and the state governments each have defined areas of authority, especially over commerce. Also known as "Layer Cake Federalism"
cooperative federalism Theory of federalism in which federal, state, and local governments interact cooperatively and collectively to solve common problems rather than making policies separately. As known as Marble Cake Federalism
fiscal federalism when money plays a key role in the federal government’s relationship to the states
"Strings Attached" ( 4 parts when using federal money) #1 Apply pressure = threats to take money away
"Strings Attached" ( 4 parts when using federal money) #2 Mandates = orders from Fed Gov to take action or money will be withdrawn
"Strings Attached" ( 4 parts when using federal money) #3 Unfunded Mandates = Congress orders actions to be completed and grants no money to do so
"Strings Attached" ( 4 parts when using federal money) #4 Preemption = Supremacy Clause in effect
Lulu payments federal monies that go to local governments in those areas in which there are large federal landholdins.