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Unit 2

Life Science

Archaea Unicellular prokaryotes that are found in extreme environments.
Bacteria Unicellular prokaryotes that are found all around us.
Eukarya Unicellular or multicellular eukaryotes that are classified into the kingdoms: protists, fungi, plants, or animals.
Natural Selection The process by which organisms that are best adapted to their environment are most likely to survive and reproduce.
Evolution Gradual genetic changes over time; the process in which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms.
Adaption An inherited behavior or physical characteristic that helps and organism survive and reproduce in its environment.
Analogous Structure Structures that have a different evolutionary origin but that has the same function for the organism.
Homologous Structure Structures that have the same evolutionary origin but may have different appearances or functions.
Cladogram A graphic that shows probable evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms and the order in which specific characteristics may have evolved.
Shared Derived Characteristic A characteristic or trait that the common ancestor of a group had and passed on to its descendants.
Classification The separation of items or organisms into groups based on common characteristics.
Taxonomy The scientific study of how living things are classified.
Dichotomous Key A tool that uses paired statements to describe physical characteristics of organisms in order to identify a specific organism.
Binomial Nomenclature The classification system in which each organism is given a unique two part scientific name that includes its genus and species.
Genus A classification grouping that consists of a number of similar, closely related species.
Species A group of similar organisms that can mate with one another and produce offspring that can also mate and reproduce.
Domain The broadest and most general level of classification.
Prokaryote A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and some other cellular structures.
Eukaryote An organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other clearly defined structures.
Nucleus The structure in many cells that contains genetic material in the form of DNA and controls many of the cell’s activities.
Created by: Kath_2oo3