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Unit 2- Cells

study guide 1 and 2

What kind of microscope use light and lenses to enlarge an image of an object? a light microscope
What kind of microscope is a light microscope that uses more than one lens to magnify an object? a compound microscope
Light microscopes like the compound microscopes can be used to view what kind of objects? living and nonliving objects
How many times can a light microscope enlarge images up to? 1,500 times
What kind of microscopes use a magnetic field to focus a beam of electrons through or onto an object's surface? electron microscopes
How high can an electron microscope magnify up to? 100,000 times
What are the two main types of electron microscopes? transmission electron microscopes (TEM) and scanning electron microscopes (SEM)
Transmission electron microscopes can only be used to study what kind of organisms, because objects must be mounted in plastic and sliced very thin? dead organisms
In what kind of microscope do electrons pass through the object and a computer produces an image of the object? Transmission electron microscopes
What kind of microscopes are usually used to study the surface of an object? scanning electron microscopes
In what kind of microscope do electrons bounce off the object and a computer produces a 3-D image of the object? Scanning electron microscope
What is the basic unit of life in all living organisms? cells
More than 300 years ago an English scientist named Robert Hooke was looking at ____under a microscope. What he saw looked like openings in a honeycomb This reminded him of small rooms called cells where monks lived. This is where the name ____ came from blank one: cork blank two: cell
What did Robert Hooke name? cells
What did scientist develop after studying many cells? Cell Theory
What does the Cell Theory state? All living things are made up of one or more cells. The cell is the smallest unit of life. All new cells come from preexisting cells
Contribution to Cell Theory: found cells in plants What scientist was this? Matthias Schleiden
Contribution to Cell Theory: found cells in animals (with Schleiden found that all living things had cells) What scientist was this? Theodor Schwann
Contribution to Cell Theory: proposed that cells come from other cells. What scientist was this? Rudolf Virchow
What is the main ingredient in any cell? water
What percentage of cells are water? 75%
The structure of ___________ makes it ideal for dissolving many other substances? water molecule
What are large molecules that form when smaller molecules join together? macromolecules
What are the 4 main types of macromolecules for cells? nucleic acid, lipids, carbohydrates, proteins
What are macromolecules that form when long chains called nucleotides join together? nucleic acids
What kind of acids are important because they contain what kind of information? Nucleic acids; genetic information
What are long chains of amino acid molecules? These what are necessary for nearly everything done in a cell proteins; macromolecules
What is a large molecule that does not dissolve in water? lipids
Because these do not mix with water, they play an important role as protective ___________ in cells and cell membranes? lipids; barriers
Lipids also play roles in _____________ storage and cell communication. energy storage
One sugar molecule, two sugar molecules, or a long chain of sugar molecules make up what? carbohydrates
Carbohydrates store ______________ , provide structural support, and are needed for communication between cells. energy
NOTE: carbohydrates are our first source of energy and lipids are stored energy
The _____________ is the basic unit of life and all living organisms. Cell
The two types of cells are __________________ & __________________ Prokaryotic and eukaryotic
A ___________________ has no nucleus or membrane bound structures inside the cell. the genetic DNA material in the cells contain in the ___________ Prokaryotic and cytoplasm
Most prokaryotic cells are _____________ Bacterium
A ________________ cell has a nucleus containing genetic (DNA) material and membrane-bound structures inside a cell Eukaryotic
________________, ______________, fungi and protists are all made of eukaryotic cells Plants and animals
Eukaryotic cell contains structures called__________ Organelles
An ___________________ is a membrane surrounding component of the cell that has specialized functions Organelle
To eukaryotic cells we will study are the ____________ cell and the _________ cell Plant and animal
A _________ is a protective layer around cells that helps to regulate interactions between the cell and the environment. ALL cells have these! Cell membrane
A _________ is a tough, rigid, outer covering that protects the cell and gives it shape Cell wall
Plants, algae, fungi and most bacteria are enclosed in a __________ Cell wall
An animal cell does NOT have a___________ Cell wall
The ____________ is a constantly moving gel-like mixture inside the cell membrane that contains hereditary material "for prokaryotic cells" Cytoplasm
Most of a cells life processes occur in the_______________ Cytoplasm
The ___________ directs all activity of the cell Nucleus
The ______________________________ is like a conveyor belt, it moves material. It can be smooth or Rough. Rough ER contains attached___________________. Endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes
The ______________ receive directions from the nucleus on how to make specific proteins needed in the cell Ribosomes
The ________________ are stacked, flattened membranes that move proteins to the outside of the cell Golgi apparatus (golgi, golgi bodies)
The _______________ breaks down food and releases energy Mitochondria
The _____________ acts as temporary storage of materials Vacuole
The ______________ are green, (chlorophyll containing) organelles that convert sunlight, CO2 and H2O into food (glucose). They produce food through a process called ___________________. Only in plants Chloroplast and photosynthesis
The _____________________ digest or recycles waste and worn-out cell parts Lysosome
Created by: dancer2024