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Bryz Ch. 4 Med Term

Medical Terminology Chapter 4 Terms

Bi twice, double, two
-cele hernia, tumor, swelling
Dys bad, difficult, painful
Fasci/o Fascia, fibrous band
Fibr/o Fibrous tissue, fiber
-ia abnormal condition, disease, plural of -ium
-ic pertaining to
Kines/o, Kinesi/o movement
My/o muscle
-plegia paralysis, stroke
-rrhexis Rupture
Tax/o coordination, order
Ten/o, Tend/o, Tendin/o tendon, stretch out, extend, strain
Ton/o tone, stretching, tension
Tri three
Abduction Movement of a limb away from the midline of the body
Adduction Movement of a limb towards the midline of the body
Adhesion Band of fibrous tissue that holds structure together abnormally
Ataxia Lack of muscle coordination during voluntary movment
Atonic Lacking normal muscle tone or strength
Atrophy Weakness or wearing away of body tissues and structures
Bradykinesia Extreme slowness in movement
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Tendons passing through the carpal tunnel are chronically overused and become inflamed and swollen
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Disorder of unknown cause that affects many body systems
Circumduction Circular movement at the far end of a limb
Contracture Permanent tightening of fascia, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or skin that occurs when normally elastic connective tissues are replaced with nonelastic fibrous tissues
Dorsiflexion Bends the foot upward at the ankle
Dyskinesia Distortion or impairment of voluntary movement such as a tic or spasm
Dystonia Condition of abnormal muscle tone that causes the impairment of voluntary muscle movement
Electromyography Diagnostic test measuring electrical activity within muscle fibers in response to nerve stimulation
Epicondylitis Inflammation of the tissues surrounding the elbow
Ergonomics Study of human factors that affect the design and operation of tools and the work environment
Exercise Physiologist Specialist who works under a physician to develop, implement, and coordinate exercise programs, and administer medical tests to promote physical fitness
Fasciitis Inflammation of the fascia
Fibromyalgia Syndrome Debilitating chronic condition characterized by fatigue; muscle, joint, bone pain; and other wide ranging symptoms
Ganglion Cyst Harmless fluid filled swelling that occurs most commonly on the outer surface of the wrist
Heel Spur Calcium deposit in the plantar fascia near its attachment to the calcaneus
Hemiparesis Slight weakness or paralysis affecting one side of the body
Hemiplegia Total paralysis affecting only one side of the body
Hernia Protrusion of a part of a structure through the tissues normally containing it
Hyperkinesia abnormally increased muscle function or activity
Hypotonia Diminished tone of the skeletal muscles
Impingement Syndrome Occurs when inflamed and swollen tendons are caught in the narrow space between the bones within the shoulder joint
Insertion Where the muscle ends by attaching to a bone or tendon
Intermittent Claudication Pain in the leg muscles occurring during exercise and is relieved by rest
Muscular Dystrophy General term describes a group of 30 genetic diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement without affecting the nervous system
Myasthenia Gravis Chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction
Myocele Herniation of muscle substance through a tear in the fascia surrounding it
Myoclonus Sudden, involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles
Myofascial Release Soft-tissue manipulation technique used to ease the pain of conditions like fibromyalgia syndrome
Myolysis Degeneration of muscle tissue
Myoparesis Weakness or slight muscular paralysis
Myorrhaphy Surgical suturing of a muscle
Neuromuscular Pertaining to the relationship between a nerve and muscle
Nocturnal Myoclonus Jerking of the limbs that can occur normally as a person is falling asleep
Oblique slanted or at an angle like the lateral abdominal muscles
Paralysis Loss of sensation and voluntary muscle movements in a muscle through disease or injury to its nerve supply
Paraplegia Paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body
Physiatrist A physician who specializes in physical medicine and rehabilitation with the focus on restoring function
Plantar Fasciitis Inflammation of the plantar fascia on the sole of the foot
Polymyositis simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of the body
Pronation Act of rotating the arm or leg so that the palm of the hand or sole of the foot is turned downward or backward
Quadriplegia Paralysis of all four extremities
Range of Motion Testing Diagnostic procedure to evaluate joint mobility and muscle strength
Sarcopenia Loss of muscle mass, strength, and function that come with aging
Shin Splint Painful condition caused by the tibialis anterior muscle tearing away from the tibia
Singultus (hiccups) myoclonus of the diaphragm that causes the characteristic hiccup sound with each spasm
Spasmodic Torticollis (Wryneck) stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the neck to the affected side
Sphincter Ring-like muscle that tightly constricts the opening of a passageway
Sprain Injury to a joint when a ligament is stretched or torn
Tenodesis Surgical suturing of the end of a tendon to a bone
Tenosynovitis inflammation of the sheath surrounding a tendon
Tenolysis The release of a tendon from adhesions
Tenorrhaphy Surgical suturing together of the divided ends of a tendon
Transverse in a crosswise direction
Origin Point at which a muscle begins
Muscle Innvervation Stimulation of a muscle by an impulse transmitted by a motor nerve
Therapeutic Ultrasound Treatment that utilizes high-frequency sound waves to treat muscle injuries
Hamstring Injury Strain or tear on any of the muscles that straighten the hip and bend the knee
Antispasmodic Also known as an anticholinergic
Fasciotomy Surgical incision through the fascia to relieve tension or pressure
Muscle Biopsy Removal of a plug of tissue for examination
Cramp Painful localized spasm named for its cause
Created by: ebryzgornia