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Final Exam AP1

Final exam review for Anatomy and Physiology 1

What is a proton positively charged particle
What is a neutron neutral subatomic particle
What makes atomic number number of protons
What makes atomic mass the number of protons and neutrons
What is an isotope? two or more atoms that have the same atomic number but different mass numbers
What is a reactive atom? An atom that does not have a full valence shell.
What is an inert atom? An atom that has a full valence shell
What is an acid? a material with a pH over 7 and has more hydrogen ions that hydroxide ions
What is a base? a material with a pH less than 7 and has more hydroxide ions that hydrogen atoms
What is a neutral material? A material with a pH of 7 and as equal parts hydrogen and hydroxide ions.
What is a peptide bond? The chemical bond formed between the carboxyl groups and amino groups of neighboring amino acids, constituting the primary linkage of all protein structures
What is a covalent bond? A chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electrons, especially pairs of electrons, between atoms
What is an ionic bond? A chemical bond in which one atom gives up an electron to another, thereby generating an electrical force that holds the atoms together.
What is a hydrogen bond? A chemical bond in which a hydrogen atom of one molecule is attracted to an electronegative atom, especially a nitrogen, oxygen, or flourine atom, usually of another molecule
What are the base pairs The base pairs are adenine-thymine and guanine-cytosine in DNA, and adenine-uracil and guanine-cytosine in RNA.
What is RNA? (a nucleic acid) in living cells that is concerned with protein synthesis. base pairs for RNA are adenine-uracil and guanine-cytosine in RNA
What is DNA? A nucleic acid that carries the genetic information in the cell. capable of synthesis of RNA.
What does hypertonic mean? Having the higher osmotic pressure of two solutions.
What does isotonic mean? Solutions with the same osmotic pressure
What does hypotonic mean? Having the lower osmotic pressure of two fluids.
What is the function of mitochondria? produces ATP
What is the function of ribosomes? convert stored genetic information into protein molecules
What is the function of the golgi apparatus? It is the packaging center, packages nutrients waste etc. to be distributed
What is the function of centrioles? centrioles give structure to the cell
What is the function of the endoplasmic reticulum? stores, seperates and serves as the cells transport system
What is the function of lysosomes? Lysosomes are digestive enzymes that eat up things in the cell. For example when a baby is born and the fingers need to be seperated.
What is the function of peroxisomes? contains oxidizing enzymes that break down toxic materials in the cell.
What is replication? When DNA makes a copy of itself.
What is transcription? the process of copying genetic information from DNA to RNA.
What is translation? When nucleotides are converted to amino acids.
What is mitosis? Mitosis is cell division
What does PMAT stand for? PMAT stands for Prophase, Metaphasse, Anaphase, and telophase
What is a codon? the "mirror image" sequence in mRNA
What is an anticodon? the three nucleotides at one side of the L in tRNA.
What is meiosis? the division of sex cells
what is the arrector pili muscle? smooth muscle that extends from the papillary zone of the dermis to the base of a hair follicle. Involuntary contraction causes hair erection which, in some species, is most noticeable on the neck and along the
What is epiphysis? the expanded articular end of a long bone
What is Diaphysis? the shaft of a long bone
What is the epiphyseal plate? a thin layer of cartilage between the epiphysis, a secondary bone-forming center, and the bone shaft. The new bone forms along the plate
What is the epiphyseal line? a plane or plate on a long bone, visible as a line, marking the junction of the epiphysis and diaphysis
What is kyphosis? when your spine curves and you are hunchbacked.
What is lordosis? when your spin curves and you are bent backward.
What is scoliosis? when you spine is crooked.
What is insertion? the stationary attachment of a muscle to a bone.
What is origin? the mobile stationary attachment of a muscle to the bone.
What does proximal mean? Nearer to a point of reference such as an origin, a point of attachment, or the midline of the body
What does distal mean? Situated farthest from the middle
What are interculating discs? linkages that connects myocyte to myocyte in cardiac muscle.
What is myosin? A protein found in muscle tissue as a thick filament made up of an aggregate of similar proteins.
What is troponin? One of the proteins that make up the thin filaments of muscle tissue and that regulate muscle contraction and relaxation. It is a receptor of calcium.
What is tropomyosin? Any of a group of muscle proteins that bind to molecules of actin and troponin to regulate the interaction of actin and myosin.
What is the cerebrum? The largest part of the brain.It controls and integrates motor, sensory, and higher mental functions, such as thought, reason, emotion, and memory.
What is the cerebellum? the back part of the brain, which controls balance and muscular coordination
What is the diencephalon? The posterior part of the forebrain that connects the midbrain with the cerebral hemispheres, encloses the third ventricle, and contains the thalamus and hypothalamus
What is the mesencephalon? The midbrain, connects the forebrain and the hind brain.
What is the medulla oblengata? The lowermost portion of the brainstem in humans and other mammals. It is important in the reflex control of involuntary processes, including respiration, heartbeat, and blood pressure
What is the pons? A band of nerve fibers on the ventral surface of the brain stem that links the medulla oblongata and the cerebellum with upper portions of the brain
What are the meninges? The three membranes that enclose the vertebrate brain and spinal cord: the pia mater, arachnoid, and dura mater.
What is the pia mater? meninge layer that is closet to brain.
What is the arachnoid? A delicate membrane that encloses the spinal cord and brain and lies between the pia mater and dura mater.
What is the dura mater? The outermost layer of the meninges.
How many lumbar vertebrae are there? 5
how many thoracic vertebrae are there? 12
How many cervical vertebrae are there? 7
How many ribs are there? 12 pair
What are the tarsals? Calcaneus Talus Navicular Cuboid Cuniform1 Cuniform2 Cuniform3
What are the metacarpals? Scaphoid Lunae Triquetrium Pisiform Trapezium Trapezoid Capitate Hamate
Created by: clb10311



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