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Membranes&Organelles

BCC-GenBio membranes and organelles vocab-functions

TermDefinition
Cell Theory The ideas that all living matter consists of cells, cells are the structural and functional units of life, and all cells come from preexisting cells
Cell Smallest unit of life that can function independently
Prokaryotic Cell a cell that lacks a nucleus and other membrane bounded organelles; bacteria and archaea
Eukaryotic Cell Organism composed of one or more cells containing a nucleus and other membrane bounded organelles
Organelle compartment of a eukaryotic cell that performs a specialized function
Phospholipid bilayer double layer of specialized fat molecules that spontaneously forms in water; constitutes the majority of a biological membrane
Endomembrane system eukaryotic organelles that exchange materials in transport vesicles
Selectively permeable The property that enables a membrane to admit some substances and exclude others
Concentration gradient difference in solute concentrations between two adjacent regions
Diffusion movement of a substance from a region where it is highly concentrated to an area where it is less concentrated
Osmosis Simple diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane
Solution A mixture of a solute dissolved in a solvent
Solvent A chemical which other substances dissolve, forming a solution
Solute a substance that dissolves in a solvent, forming a solution
Facilitated diffusion form of passive transport in which a substance moves down its concentration gradient with the aid of a transport protein
Active transport Movement of a substance across a membrane against its concentration gradient, using a carrier protein and energy from ATP
Endocytosis Form of transport in which the cell membrane engulfs extracurricular material
Phagocytosis form of endocytosis in which the cell engulfs a large particle
Exocytosis Form of transport in which vesicles containing cell secretion fuse with the cell membrane
Virus infectious agent that consists of genetic information enclosed in a protein coat
Bacteriophage A virus that infects bacteria
Coccus spherical prokaryote - often found in 'clumps'
Bacillus rod shaped prokaryote
Spirillum Spiral shaped prokaryote
Protist eukaryotic organism that is not a plant , animal , or fungus
Algae aquatic, photosynthetic protist
double layer phospholipid consists of two layers of molecules that are made of glycerol bonded to two fatty acids and a phophate group. The hydrophilic heads are exposed to environment outside and inside the cell; hydrophobic tails face each other in the middle of the membrane.
phosphate polar head These are hydrophilic, and are exposed to water inside and outside the cell, allowing the membrane to interact with its external surroundings and internal environment
lipid non-polar tails hydrophobic and face each other within the membrane, so when the bilayer is exposed to water, these minimize the contact with water, giving the membrane its semi-permeable characteristics.
transport (channel) protein These molecules are embedded in the phospholipid bilayer, and create passageways through the bilayer, allowing ions, glucose, and other polar substances to pass into or out of the cell.
carbohydrate chain (receptor) these serve as the fingerprints of the cell. Each chain has an enormous possibility of diversity, which can vary by the number of sugars, by whether the chain is branched, and by the sequence of the particular sugars.
glycolipid chain have a similar structure to that of phospholipids. However, the hydrophilic head is a variety of sugars joined to form a straight or branching carbohydrate chain. It is projected externally.
glycoprotein chain polypeptides that have an attached carbohydrate chain that is made of sugars and projected externally.
cell (plasma) membrane Controls the movements of substances into and out of cells. Also protects the cell from it's surroundings.
cell wall Both protection and structure of a plant cell. Gives the cell its shape and provides a sort of external 'skeleton'. Acts as a filter, and prevents over-expansion from too much water which could cause the cell to burst.
nucleus Contains DNA which is the information molecule, all proteins are begun in their subunits, chromosomes are formed here before cell division occurs. Coordinates the cell's activities by acting as "administrative office".
nucleolus Dense spot within the nucleus that assembles the components of ribosomes, transcribes DNA into RNA.
ribosome Makes proteins - reads mRNA from transcription to assemble amino acids in the correct order.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum packages substances that are destined to be secreted from the cell - also performs some protein folding since this is where most ribosomes can be found.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Acts as a transport or 'highway' system within the cell - also stores and delivers calcium ions necessary for muscle contraction.
Golgi Apparatus Stack of flat membrane enclosed scacs that functions as a processing center, also manufacture and atttach carbohydrates to proteins and lipids for forming the "name tags"
Vesicles Membrane bounded sac that stores and transports substances throughout the cell
central vacuole provide structual support, storage, growth, and waste disposal for producer cells - also occupies up to 90% of the cell's volume.
Lysosomes Dismantle and and recycle food particles, captured bacteria, worn-out organelles, and debris. They break down large organic molecules into smaller subunits by hydolysis and then release them into the cytosol for cell use.
Peroxisomes small, membrane-bound packets of enzymes that act to detoxify the cell by chemically degrading toxins, drugs, poisons, or other harmful chemicals
Centrioles (Centrosome) Organizes microtubules - in the prophase stage of mitosis, the centriole pairs start moving toward opposite pokes of the cell, forming the spindle simultaneously. The migration and the positioning determines the production of flagella or cilia.
Cilia Enables organisms to move. Coordinated movements set up a rhythmic wave that propels particles across the cell surface. This motion can keep sensitive internal passageways free of mucus or foreign particles.
Flagella "Kind of like tails - whiplike movement propels cells, for movement, sensation and signal transduction, adhesion, moves liquid over the surface of the cell, important virulence factors
Mitochondria extract energy from food through cellular resporation. (powerhouse)
Chloroplast organelle that produces sugars from the process of photosynthesis, and contains DNA that encode proteins unique to that structure.
Microfilaments Muscle contraction. They also provide strength for cells to survive stretching and compression, and they help anchor one cell to another.
Intermediate filaments They maintain a cell's shape by forming an internal scaffold in the cytosol and resisting mechanical stress - external extensions also help bind some cells together
Microtubles They produce a type of "track" along which reproductive structures move within a cell - they also split a cell's duplicated chromosomes apart during cell division.
Created by: nstevens