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St Spartan Religion

Questions & Answers

What was the religious document the political constitution of Sparta was based on ? Great Rhetra
Who were the 2 kings directly descended from ? Herakles
The 2 kings were the high priest of 2 cults of ? Zeus
The government of Sparta was secular. True or False? False
In which Persian war battle were the Spartans prevented from fighting because of a festival ? Marathon
How many lead votives were found in the sanctuary of Artemis-Orthia ? 100,000
Name of the Greek underworld Hades
Festival attended every 4 years in honour of Zeus Olympic Games
Spartans believed they were descendants of the Herakleidai - who were these? "sons of Heracles"
Which diety, believed to be a pre-Dorian, was merged with Artemis Orthia
The Karneia was a major Spartan festival for which Olympian god ? Apollo
The translation for the "Gymnopaedia" "Festival of unarmed dancing"
How many kms south of Sparta was the Amyklaion ? 6 km
In English, Athena in Sparta was known as ? "Athena of the Bronze House"
In a major festival of which deity was the "cheese stealing" ritual ? Artemis-Orthia
Which 2 "heroes" is the Menelaion dedicated to ? Menalaos & Helen
Which festival prevented the whole Spartan army fighting at Thermopolyae ? Karneia
Where was the cult centre of Apollo in Greece ? Delphi
Which deity was not worshiped at Sparta ? Hephaistos
Which athletic games were held in honour of Apollo at Delphi every 4 years? Pythian
Term for priest who accompanied king on campaigns to interpret omens ? mantis
What is a liquid offering called ? libation
Name of source that contains fragments of Spartan hymns Alkman
On which 2 days of a month did the Kings have to sacrifice an animal to Apollo ? 1st & 7th
Which festival commemorated 2 important battles against Argos ? Gymnopaedia
Which festival ritual did Pausanias believe was a substitute for human sacrifice ? "cheese stealing" ritual
At which temple was there a 14m bronze statue of Apollo ? Amyklaion
Which 2 demi-gods were the Dioskouroi ? Kastor & Pollux
What was the Greek term for the spirits of the dead ? daimones
For Spartans what was the proscribed length of mourning for relatives ? 12 days
Which Spartiates were allowed to have a burial with their name inscribed men who had died in battle & women in childbirth
The Hyakinthia festival was based on the death & resurrection of Apollo's lover ...? Hyacinthos
Which festival was based on a crime against Apollo ? Karneia
Which important shrine was placed on a Mycenaean site ? Menelaion
What did Lycurgus do to train Spartans to be less superstitious & not fear death? Allowed burials in the city
What were the 9 religious units all Spartiates were organised into ? phratries
Which god of prophecy did the Spartiates worship ? Apollo
Which 2 deities who were related did the Spartans worship ? Apollo & Artemis Orthia
Which deity was a focus of a fertility cult ? Artemis-Orthia
How many pythians were appointed by the kings ? 4
Who was banned from attending the Gymnopaedia festival? bachelors
What is a cenotaphs for heroes in Sparta called ? Heroon
What were the only 2 objects Lycurgus allowed in Spartiate men's burials ? red cloak & olive leaves
How many days of national mourning were proscribed for a King's death ? 10
Which famous king/general from the Persian wars took refuge in the Temple of Athena when condemned to death for corruption ? Pausanias
Helots, Perioikoi & which other group were excluded from all Spartan festivals ? inferiors/ hypomeiones
Where was the Temple of Athena Chalkioikos in Sparta on the acropolis
Plutarch says every 9 years the ephors watched for what as a sign a king had committed a religious offence ? a shooting star
Which 2 deities did the King sacrifice to before crossing a border while on campaign > Zeus & Athena
Which lost battle did the Gymnopaedia festival commemorate ? Hysaia 669 BC
Where was the sanctuary of Artemis-Orthia situated in the city of Sparta ? on the edge, in the marshes
Which famous Spartan lawgiver was given temple & sacrifices by the C5th ? Lycurgus
Who was given the duty of conducting funeral rites in Spartan society ? female relatives
Which source celebrates the immortality of warrior's name through his tomb Tyrtaeus
How many sacrifices did the Spartans make on the way to war? 3
Who was responsible for the safekeeping of oracles from Delphi the kings
Which festival involved a pilgrimage that "emptied Sparta" to a site outside Sparta ? Hyakinthia
What were offerings of wine, oil or honey called libations
Which 2 royal families claimed divine descent from Heracles ? Agaids & Eurypontids
How was Apollo represented in the cult of Apollo Karneios ? a ram
In which festival did boys dance athletic war dances naked in the summer sun as an ordeal? Gymnopaedia
Which Festival was an endorsement of male-male relationships (pederasty) ? Hyakinthia
Who was the father of the Dioskouroi Zeus
If the king was killed in war what placed at his burial? a statue
The site of Artemis-Orthia goes back to which century ? C10th
In which deities rituals were cultic masks used? Artemis-Orthia
What is the term for offerings that were objects votive
Which festival was based on the legend of the killing of a seer (priest) of Apollo ? Karneia
What was the first stage of the Festival of Hyakinthia ? "sorrowful stage"
on the 12th & last day of mourning a sacrifice to which deity ended the grieving period ? Demeter
Spartan religious practices promoted social c...................... cohesion
What was Athena Chalkioikos' temple originally covered with ? bronze sheets
In 2 festivals Spartiate women wove garments for the statues of which 2 deities Artemis-Orthia & Apollo
Which Spartan institution was very involved in festivals ? Agoge
Which deity worshipped by the Spartans was associated with & celebrated with music & poetry? Apollo
Spartan religion promoted individual worship. True or False? False
Deity with temple on the Acropolis in city of Sparta Athena Chalkioikos
In the legend of Apollo & Hyacinthos which flower was Hyacinthos turned into? Hyacinth
Who does Plutarch say was responsible for looking for a shooting star every 9 years to check the Kings had not committed a religious crime ? Ephors
What were the kings responsible for safekeeping? Oracles from Delphi
Which was the "Festival of unarmed Dancing" ? Gymnopaedia
What may the cheese in the ritual of Artemis-Orthia represent of the goddess? her milk
Why did Lycurgus institute burials within the city? dispel a fear of death
It was the duty of the Kings to make a public sacrifice on the 1st & 7th day of each month to which deity? Apollo
The cult of Apollo & Hyakinthos endorsed what practice in Spartan society & the agog ? pederasty
How high does Pausanias say the bronze statue of Apollo at Amyklae was? 14 m
It is believed the site of the Menelaion may be related to an earlier vegetation cult & goddess that was reassigned to which hero? Helen
The Dioskouroi were seen as protectors of who ? kings & those in battle
On burial steal what do snakes & pomegranate represent the Underworld
10 days of mourning were prescribe for who ? Kings
Other Greeks mocked the Spartans' serious attitude to religion. True or False? True
The Pythian Games were a religious festival for which deity? Apollo
Which deity was associated with the origins of Sparta? Herakles
divination was a rite of predicting .... the future
Alkman provides evidence of what religious practice hymns
Heroes & ancestors were invoked to protect against what? "unquiet spirits"
How was Apollo represented in the cult associated with the Karneia ? a ram
Which athletic martial dance was performed at the Gymnopaedia? Pyrrhic
Site where large amounts of votive offerings have been excavated? Sanctuary of Artemis-Orthia
Many Spartan sites & festivals represent a fusion of Dorian & which other reliefs ? pre-Dorian/earlier indigenous
Greeks believed they were subject to a divinely preordained future. What is the term for this ? fate
Term used for the gods collectively pantheon
Dreams, visions, earthquakes & the behaviour of animals could be used for which practice ? divination
A personal rather than collective religious practice votive offerings
How many cults of Zeus existed in Sparta? 2
The kings appointed 4 of these each year Pythons
Which of the festivals was mainly a music one? Karneia
A heroon was a cenotaph for who? heroes
The "sorrowful" & "joyful" stages were part of which festival Hyakinthia
Which festival was associated with the Spartan defeat at Hysiai ? Gymnopaedia
A festival of which deity involved an extreme ordeal testing endurance & courage Artemis- Orthia
The monument to Apollo at Amyklae supposedly surmounted a burial for who? Hyacinths
Which religious practice took place before banquets libations
What term describes the calling down of the deity ? invoke
What did kings receive at public sacrifices ? the best cuts of meat
On the day of a battle what did the kings sacrifice? a goat
Which festival is based on a murder committed by a Herakleidai ? Karneia
Which of the 4 main festivals is held outside the city? Hyakinthia
Which festival were bachelors excluded from ? Gymnopaedia
Which site has evidence from the C10th ? Sanctuary of Artemis-Orthia
Which ritual involves running a gauntlet Cheese stealing ritual
Which festival was 9 days in the city Karneia
The Gymnopaedia festival was dedicated to which deity? Apollo
A festival practice believed to represent "rite of passage" for young men was associated with which deity ? Artemis-Orthia
Which deity was considered to be the "protector" of the city of Sparta? Athena
What religious rite did Spartan armies practice crossing borders ? sacrifice
Which festival involved 9 men, representing the 9 phratries, living in bowers of wood & twigs for 9 days ? Karneia
Which deity was associated with a "Bronze House" ? Athena
What is the 3 sided monument at Amyklae, surrounding the huge state called "throne"
What did women beat as a signal for the death of a king? cauldrons
Priests were the representatives of the gods in Sparta? True of False? False - it was Kings
In which festival was a ram specifically sacrificed? Karneia
In which festival did young men dance athletic war dances with military equipment naked in the sun ? Gymnopaedia
Which religious monument was 6km south of the city of Sparta? Amyklaion
What were the "daimones" spirits of the dead
What was the punishment for Spartans who failed to observe the specific mourning rites for kings? a fine
Which festival had 2 stages of grief then joy? Hyakinthia
Which festival had the "catch the runner" race ritual? Karneia
What was the purpose of the "catch the runner" ritual in the Karneia? Divination - a good or bad year ahead
Remains of an 8th & C6th temple have been found at which site? sanctuary of Artemis-Orthia
Which festival involves the making of model rafts that represent the arrival of the Herakleidai ? Karneia
Where were the dancing contests/ displays of the Gymnopaedia held in the city of Sparta? the agora/ market place
In which rite does Pausanias note the presence of a priestess ? cheese stealing ritual (Artemis-Orthia)
200 of what type of carved votive objects have been found at the Sanctuary of Artemis-Orthia ? ivory
The Spartans practised human sacrifice. True or False ? False
What did the giant statue of Apollo at Amyklai hold? spear & bow
Which temple did the Spartan sculptor & architect Gitiadas build? Athena Chalkioikos
Who was the brother of Artemis? Apollo
Which important written source provides information about temples & sanctuaries in Sparta that no longer exist Pausanias
Which source provides information about the divination of shooting stars every 9 years by the ephors about the kings' behaviour. ? Plutarch
The Karneia prevented or limited Spartan involvement in which 2 famous battles? Marathon & Thermopylae
During the Hyakinthia one ritual involved Spartiates serving ....? helots
Which cult site was a personal focus of women? Sanctuary of Artemis-Orthia
Herons were burial sites of those who died in battle. True or False? False - not burials, cenotaphs of particular heroes of great merit
Which hero had his own cult as the "founder" of Sparta? Lycurgus
Which highly honoured deities in Sparta were born from an egg Dioskouroi
Name of the river crossed on the way to Hades ? Styx
What clothes were Spartans compelled by the State to wear on the death of a king? special mourning clothes
Which festival represents atonement for a crime against Apollo ? Karneia
Bachelors were punished at festivals by giving up what to younger men? their seats
Which festival was closely linked to the military training regime of the agog? Gymnopaedia - contests of martial dancing
Hyakinthos is believed to have been from an earlier, pre-Dorian cult. True or False? True - his death & resurrection represent the Dorian take over & fusion of earlier cults with Dorian
votive masks suggest the use of masks in rituals for which cult? Artemis-Orthia
There is evidence for which female "Hero" at Sparta? Helen
A heroon/ cenotaph was set up for which famous king/ General who died at Thermopylae ? Leonidas
Who wrote: " his fame & good name will never perish utterly, for he is immortal in the grave…” Tyrtaeus
Which deity associate with earthquakes & horses was honoured with sanctuaries according to Pausanias Poseidon
Which festival may be associated with a cult of the dead and/or vegetation cult ? Hyakinthia
At which shrine does Herodotus tell a story about an ugly baby being made beautiful ? Menelaion (intercession of Helen)
There was heaven & hell in Greek/ Spartan religion. True or False ? False - all went to Hades
The Great Rhetra & "Rider" were religious documents. True or False? True - both obtained from Apollo through the Oracle at Delphi
Where does Pausantius claim the Spartans "used to " (pre Lykurugus) practice human sacrifice ? Sanctuary of Artemis-Orthia
What source provides evidence that young girls bring a cloak, they have woven, for Artemis-Orthia's statue ? Alkman
c. 750 form of Spartan burial in pithoi jars
c. 600 change of Spartan burial to lined cist graves
Area in Sparta where c. 600 BC cist graves found Mesoa
There is evidence of 2 story buildings from the C6th that operated as ...? ossuaries
Over the top of cist graves was a tumulus/ mound
What was found within the cist grave tumulus ? bones from a funerary feast
Created by: Hatshepsut