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Bryz Ch. 2 Med Term

Medical Terminology Chapter 2 Terms

Aden/o gland
Adip/o fat
Anter/o before, front
Caud/o lower part of body, tail
Cephal/o head
Cyt/o, cyte cell
End/o in, within, inside
Exo out of, outside, away from
Hist/o, Histi/o tissue
-ologist specialist
-ology the science or study of
Path/o, -pathy disease, suffering, feeling, emotion
Plas/i, plas/o, -plasia development, growth, formation
Poster/o behind, toward the back
-stasis, -static control, maintenance of a constant level
Abdominal Cavity Contains primarily the major organs of digestion
Adenectomy Surgical removal of a gland
Adenocarcinoma Malignant tumor that originates in glandular tissue
Adenoma Benign tumor that arises in or resembles glandular tissue
Adenomalacia Abnormal softening of a gland
Adenosclerorsis Abnormal hardening of a gland
Anaplasia Change in the structure of cells and in their orientation to each other
Anatomy Study of the structure of the body
Anomaly Deviation from what is regarded to be normal
Anterior Front side
Aplasia Defective development, or the congenital absence, of an organ or tissue
Bloodborne Tranmission Spread of disease through contact with blood or other body fluids that are contaminated with blood
Caudal Towards the lower part of the body
Cephalic Toward the head
Chromosomes Genetic structure located within the nucleus of each cell
Communicable disease (Contagious disease) any condition that is transmitted from one person to another either by direct or indirect contact with contaminated objects
Congenital Disorders Abnormal condition that exists at the time of birth
Cytoplasm Material within the cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus
Distal Farthest from the midline or beginning of a body structure
Dorsal Back of organ or body
Dysplasia Abnormal development or growth of cells, tissues, or organs
Endemic Ongoing presence of a disease within a population, group, or area
Endocrine Glands Produces hormones, do not have ducts
Epidemic Sudden and widespread outbreak of a disease within a specific population, group, or area
Epigastric Region Located above the stomach
Etiology Study of the causes of diseases
Exocrine Glands Secrete chemical substances in ducts that lead either to other organs or out of the body, such as sweat glands
Functional Disorder Produces symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified
Genetic Disorder (Hereditary disorder) pathological condition caused by an absent or defective gene
Geriatrician Physician who specializes in the care of older people
Hemophilia Hereditary bleeding disorder in which blood-clotting factor is missing
Histology Study of structure
Homeostasis Processes through which the body maintains a constant internal environment
Hyperplasia Enlargement of an organ or tissue because of an abnormal increase in the number of cells in the tissues
Hypertrophy General increase in the bulk of a body part or organ that is due to an increase in the size, but not in the number, of cells in the tissues
Hypogastric Region Located below the stomach
Hypoplasia Incomplete development of an organ or tissue usually due to a deficiency in the number of cells
Iatrogenic Illness Unfavorable response due to prescribed medical treatment
Infectious Disease An illness caused by living pathogenic organisms such as bacteria and viruses
Inguinal Relating to the groin or the lower area of the abdomen
Medial Toward, or nearer the midline
Mesentery Fused double layer of the parietal peritoneum that attaches parts of the intestine to the interior abdominal wall
Midsagittal Plane Divides the body into equal left and right halves
Nosocomial Infection Disease acquired in a hospital or clinical setting
Pandemic Outbreak of a disease occuring over a large geographic area, possibly worldwide
Pelvic Cavity Space formed by the hip bones and contains primarily the organs of the reproductive and excretory systems
Peritoneum Multilayered membrane that protects and holds the organs in place within the abdominal cavity with an outer parietal and inner visceral layer
Peritonitis Inflammation of the peritoneum
Phenylketonuria Genetic disorder in which the essential digestive enzyme phenylalanine hydroxyalse is missing
Physiology Study of the functions of the structures of the body
Posterior Back side
Proximal Situated nearest the midline or beginning of a body structure
Retroperitoneal Located behind the peritoneum
Stem Cells Unspecialized cells that are able to renew themselves for long periods of time by cell division
Thoracic Cavity Surrounds and protects the heart and lungs
Transverse Plane Horizontal plane dividing the superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions
Umbilicus Belly button, navel
Vector-borne Transmission Spread of certain disease due to the bite of a vector
Ventral Front, or belly side, of the organ or body
Adult Stem Cells Undifferentiated cells found among differentiated cells in an organ or tissue. Their primary role is to maintain and repair tissues
Airborne Transmission Occurs through contact with contaminated respiratory droplets spread by a cough or sneeze
Atresia Congenital absence of a normal body opening or the failure of a structure to be tubular
Developmental Disorder Also known as a birth defect, it can result in an anomaly or malformation such as the absence of a limb or the presence of an extra digit (finger or toe)
Down Syndrome Genetic variation that is associated with characteristic facial appearance, learning disabilities, and physical abnormalities such as heart valve disease
Epithelial Type of tissue that forms a protective covering for all of the internal and external surfaces of the body.They also form glands.
Endothelium Specialized epithelial tissue that lines the blood and lymph vessels, body cavities, glands, and organs
Frontal Plane Vertical plane dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions
Gastralgia Stomacheache
Idiopathic Disorder Illness without a known cause
Superior Uppermost, above, or towards the head
Organ Somewhat independent part of the body that performs a specific function
Created by: ebryzgornia