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4Q US History Review

4th 9 Weeks US History Review

Why were changes to manufacturing needed in the mid-1700s? Demand was greater than the available supply of goods.
What is the time of rapid growth during which machines became essential to industry? The Industrial Revolution.
What was Eli Whitney's influence on American manufacturing? The idea of interchangeable parts.
What did textile manufactures do to keep the costs of running a mill low? Hired children and paid them very little.
What was Samuel Slater's strategy of hiring families and dividing factory work into simple tasks? Rhode Island System.
How long would a typical "Lowell girl" stay at the mills? Four years.
Who had the opportunity to become mill workers and earn better wages than most jobs as a result of Francis Cabot Lowell's new system? Women.
Why did many mill workers suffer from health problems, such as chronic cough? Unsafe working conditions.
What is an organization of workers who try to improve pay and working conditions for its members? Trade Union.
Who fought to bring the 10-hour working day of public employees to private business employees? Sarah G. Bagley.
What was the period of rapid growth in the speed and convenience of travel? The Transportation Revolution.
Because of the Transportation Revolution, settlers plowed up prairies and cut down trees to make farmland where? The Midwest.
What were two new forms of transportation invented during the Transportation Revolution? Steam-powered train and the steamboat.
What invention enabled people to send news quickly from coast to coast? The telegraph.
Where was most of America's industry located in the 1800s? The Northeast.
What inventions allowed farmers to plant and harvest huge crop fields? The plow and reaper.
What allowed prices to go down enough for families to be able to buy items they could not afford in the past? Mass Production.
What was the area called stretching from South Carolina to Texas that grew this important crop? Cotton Belt
Why did the southern cotton trade rely on rivers to ship goods? A lack of usable roads.
What was the white owner of a small farm known as? Yeoman.
In the first half of the 1800s, what portion of white southern families had slaves? One-third.
Slaves working in planters' houses usually had better what? Food, clothing and shelter.
What advantage did skilled slaves have over unskilled slaves? Earning money to buy their freedom.
How did most planters encourage slave obedience? Through physical punishments.
Why were most slaves uneducated? Teaching slaves was prohibited in most states.
What have some historians called "the invisible institution?" Slave religion.
What were strict state laws that controlled the actions of slaves? Slave codes.
What was the effect of Nat Turner's rebellion? Slave codes were toughened.
Runaway slaves were returned to their owners as part of what act? Fugitive Slave Act.
Who exposed the harsh reality of slave life in her novel called Uncle Tom's Cabin? Harriet Beecher Stowe
What Supreme Court ruling established that slaves were not citizens so they could not bring a case to court? Dred Scott v. Sandford
Why was John Brown leading an armed resistance in Virginia in 1859? To steal weapons and bring them to local slaves.
Where was John Brown's raid when he and his men attempted to take over an arsenal in hopes of starting a slave rebellion? Harpers Ferry.
What party formed that recognized "no political principals other than the Constitution of the country, the Union of the states, and the enforcement of the laws?" Constitutional Union Party.
What party could not agree on a single candidate for the 1860 Presidential Election? Democratic.
What did many southern states do because they feared their economy and way of life would be destroyed? Secede from the Union.
What did the firing of Confederate guns on Fort Sumter begin? The Civil War.
What was the plan by Jefferson Davis based on the belief that Britain would support the South because it needed raw cotton? Cotton Diplomacy.
What Union General had a two part strategy to win the Civil War? Winfield Scott.
Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri were called what? Border States.
What did the Border States have in common other than not seceding from the Union? Legal slavery.
Winfield Scott's two part strategy included controlling the Mississippi River and employing what? A naval blockade of southern ports.
What battle ended the Unions hopes of winning the war quickly and easily? First Battle of Bull Run
What Confederate General became famous at the first Battle of Bull Run for holding his union firmly in place? Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson
Who won the Second Battle of Bull Run? Confederate Army.
What battle in Maryland stopped Lee's advance and shifted control of the Civil War from South to North? The Battle of Antietam.
What is the Battle of Antietam known for? The bloodiest single-day battle of the Civil War-and of U.S. history.
How did the Civil War change naval warships? Ended the use of wooden warships powered by sails and wind.
The Union army wanted to control what river in the West? The Mississippi River.
What battle gave the Union total control of the Mississippi River? The Siege of Vicksburg.
What military order freed all slaves in Confederate territory? The Emancipation Proclamation.
Where was slavery still legal after the Emancipation Proclamation? The border states.
What political party opposed the Emancipation Proclamation? The Democratic Party.
Who gave the Emancipation Proclamation order? Abraham Lincoln.
Who mostly made up the 54th Massachusetts Infantry? Free African Americans.
What were Midwesterners who sympathized with the South and apposed abolition known as? Copperheads.
How did many prisoners of war die? Starvation and disease.
What speech was given by President Lincoln to remind Americans of the reasons that the Civil War was being fought? The Gettysburg Address.
The ideas of the The Gettysburg Address valuing liberty, equality, and democracy came from what document? The Declaration of Independence.
What battle was the last time Lee's Confederate troops launched an attack in the North? The Battle of Gettysburg.
What was the one mile march up toward Cemetery Ridge and proved to be a disaster for the Confederate army? Pickett's Charge.
What was the series of battles by Union General Ulysses S. Grant designed to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond? The Wilderness Campaign.
Where was the economy so bad after the Civil War that homes and jobs were not available to most people? The South.
What was process to readmit former Confederate states into the Union? Reconstruction.
What organization was established to aid poor southerners? Freemen's Bureau.
Who came up with the 10 Percent Plan, offering southerns amnesty, or official pardon, for all illegal acts supporting the rebellion? President Abraham Lincoln.
What Amendment made slavery illegal in the whole United States? 13th Amendment.
What Amendment dealt with due process and citizenship rights? 14th Amendment.
What laws were passed by southern governments to limit the civil rights of freed African Americans? The Black Codes.
Created by: dacoburn