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A & P-muscles

muscular system

3 Connective tissue components Endomysin, Perimysium, Epimysium
specialized skeletal muscle cells/fibers covered by a delicate connective tissue membrane called Endomysin
fascicles are bound together by a tough connective tissue envelope called Perimysium
The muscle as a whole are covered by a coarse sheath called Epimysium
a strong tough cord continuous at its other end with the fibrous periosteum covering a bone tendon
fibrous wrapping of a muscle may extend as a broad, flat sheet of connective tissue which usually merges with the fibrous wrappings of another muscle aponeurosis
general term for the fibrous connective tissue found under the skin and surrounding many deeper organs, including skeletal muscles and bones fascia
Tube-shaped structures of fibrous connective tissue that enclose certain tendons, notably those of the wrist and ankle tendon sheaths
6 muscle shapes parallel, convergent, pennate, fusiform, spiral, circular
vary in length,straplike muscles with parallel fascicles, sartorius muscle and rectus abdominis are examples parallel
radiate out from a small to a wider point of attachment, like the blades in a fan. example: pectoralis major muscle convergent
muscles with a“feather-like” appearance pennate
have fascicles that may be close to parallel in the center (thick in the middle), converge to a tendon at one or both ends. example: brachioradialis fusiform
have fibers that twist between their points of attachment, example: latisumus dorsi spiral
muscles that are circle body tubes or openings. examples: orbicularis oris around the mouth circular
point of attachment that does not move when the muscle contracts orgin
the point of attachment that moves when the muscle contracts insertion
muscles that function as joint stabilizers. help maintain posture or balance fixator
What are the criteria for naming muscles location, function, shape, size, direction of fibers, number of divisions, points of attachement
Functions of muscles movement, heat, posture
protective sheath, plasma membrane connections between sacromeres sarcolemma
the cytoplam of the plasma membrane of a muscle fiber sarcoplasm
bundles of very fine cytoskeletal filaments that extend lengthwise along skeletal muscle fibers, fill the sarcoplasm, cylindrical structures that carry out contraction myofibrils
Myofibrils are made up of still fine fibers called myofilaments
2 types of myofilaments thick and thin
a segment of the myofibril between two successive Z lines,functions as a contractile unit, make up miofibrils sarcomeres
four different kinds of protein molecules make up myofilaments: myosin, actin, tropomysin, tropin
The thin myofilaments are made of a combination of three proteins: actin, tropomyosin, troponin
anchor for myofibrils and separates one sarcomere from the next Z line
Injuries (tearing or stretching) to skeletal muscles caused by overexertion or trauma usually result in muscle strain
If an injury occurs in the area of a joint and a ligament is damaged, the injury is a sprain
3 types of muscle cardiac, smooth, skeletal
where is smooth muscle found walls of all hollow organs of the body
another name for skeletal muscle striated
thick filaments are composed of what protein myosin
thin filaments are composed of what proteins? actin, troponin, tropmyosin
in the resting state, Ca is stored in what part of the muscle fiber sacroplasmic reticulum
what does Ca bind to? troponin of thin filaments
when troponin and Ca bind they stimulate what interaction between actin and myosin reulting in sacromere contraction
what role does ATP have in muscle contraction? pumps Ca back
Created by: srehrauer