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Penn Foster Biology

Chapter 20 "Plant Anatomy & Growth"

Cell Basic unit of life
Tissue Composed of specialized cells that perform a particular function
Organ A structure made up of multiple tissues
Meristem tissue First cells of plant embryo; Allowing a plant to grow its entire life.
Apical meristems Located at the ends of the plant. Develop into 3 types of specialized tissues of the plant body.
Epidermal tissue Forms the outer protective covering of a plant
Ground tissue Fills the interior of a plant and helps carry out the functions of a particular organ. Makes up the bulk of the plant body; 1) Parenchyma cells 2) Collenchyma cells 3) Sclerenchyma cells
Vascular tissue Transports water and nutrients in a plant and provides support.
Vascular cambium Another type of meristem that gives rise to new vascular tissue called secondary growth.
Secondary growth Increases a plant's girth.
Epidermis A layer of closely packed cells that act as a barrier.
Cuticle The walls of the epidermal cells that are exposed to air are covered by waxy ____ to minimize water loss.
Root hairs Long, slender projections of epidermal cells that increase the surface area of the root for absorption of water and minerals.
Stomata A small opening surrounded by two guard cells, found in leaves
Trichomes Another type of epidermal cell that make plants feel prickly or hairy and discourage insects from eating the leaves or stems.
Cork Cambium New cork cells are made by a meristem called ___?
Suberin A lipid material, encrusting the walls of cork cells, making it waterproof and chemically inert.
Parenchyma cells Are the least specialized of the cell types; found in all the organs of a plant. Have thin walls, are active in photosynthesis and storage.
Collenchyma cells Are like parenchyma cells except that they have irregularly shaped corners and thicker cell walls. Often form bundles just beneath the epidermis & give flexible support to immature regions of a plant body. Provide support for primary tissues.
Sclerenchyma cells Have thick secondary cell walls containing lignin. Fibrous cells that give stalks their gravity-resistant strength.
Lignin Makes plant cell wall tough and hard.
Xylem Transports water and minerals from the roots to the leaves.
Phloem Transports sugar, in the form of sucrose, and other organic compounds, such as hormones, often from the leaves to the roots.
Vessel elements Hollow and nonliving; larger of the two, has perforated end walls, and are arranged to form a continuous pipeline for water and mineral transport.
Tracheids Hollow and nonliving; Have pits that allow water to move from one to the other.
Sieve-tube members So called, because they contain a cluster of pores in their end walls.
Companion cell Each sieve-tube member has a _____, which does have a nucleus. May be involved in transport function of phloem.
Shoot system Consists of the stem, leaves, flowers, & fruit.
Terminal Bud Contains an apical meristem & produces new leaves & other tissues during the initial, primary growth
Primary growth Initial growth
Lateral bud Located at the angle where a leaf joins the stem
Node Where a leaf or leaves are attached to the stem
Internode The region between the nodes
Root system Consists of the roots
Cotyledons Embryonic leaves present in seeds
Monocots Plants whose embryo has one cotyledon; known as monocotyledons
Eudicots Embryos have 2 cotyledons (true dicots)
Vascular bundles Vascular tissue occurs in ______ scattered in the monocot stem, occur in ring in the eudicot stems
Leaf veins Vascular tissue forms this to the naked eye
Leaves Chief organs of photosynthesis, require supply of solar energy, carbon dioxide, and water.
Deciduous plants lose their leaves, often due to a yearly dry season or the onset of winter.
Evergreens Retain their leaves for the entire year
Blade The wide portion of a foliage leaf
Petiole Stalk that attaches the blade to the stem
Simple Blade of a leaf is often undivided
Compound Blade of a leaf is divided
Mesophyll Tissue that carries out photosynthesis
Palisade mesophyll Contains tightly packed cells, increasing the surface area for the absorption of sunlight
Spongy mesophyll Contains irregular cells surrounded by air spaces
Stems The trunk of a plant
Cortex A narrow band of parenchyma cells; Large, thin-walled parenchyma cells make up the cortex root; contain starch granules & may function in food storage.
Herbaceous non-woody stem plants
Pith Ground tissue in the center
Perennial plants Able to regrow each season from varied underground stems, such as tubers and rhizomes, all of which bear nodes that can produce a new shoot system.
Secondary growth Increases the girth of stems, branches, and rooots
Bark Of a tree that contains cork, cork cambium, cortex, & phloem
Cork cambium Located beneath the epidermis & is another region of active cell division.
Cork cells Impregnated with suberin, a waxy layer that makes them waterproof, but also causes them to die.
Lenticels Pockets of loosely arranged cork cells not impregnated with suberin
Secondary xylem Xylem is made by the vascular cambium
Wood Secondary xylem that builds up year after year, increasing the girth of trees.
Spring wood In the spring, vascular cambium produces secondary xylem tissue that contains wide vessels with thin walls.
Summer wood When there is less rain & the wood has lower proportion of vessels
Annual ring The trunk of a tree has spring wood followed by summer wood
Roots Have a cylindrical shape & slimy surface
Root hairs Increase the absorption of water & minerals; greatly increase absorptive capacity of root
Root cap Covered with a slimy substance to help penetrate downward into the abrasive soil is meant to be damaged to protect the apical meristem.
Vascular cylinder Both monocot eudicot roots have; contains xylem & phloem
Endodermis A single layer or rectangular cells that fit snugly together; impermeable material on all but 2 sides forces water & minerals to pass through endodermal cells
Pericycle The first layer of cells inside the endodermis; continue to divide & form lateral roots.
Macronutrient Nutrients that are needed by a plant in large amounts
Micronutrient Nutrients that the plant needs in smaller amounts
Cofactors Elements that ensure that enzymes have the correct shape
Root Nodules Bacteria live here & the plant supplies the bacteria with carbohydrates
Mycorrhizal fungi another mutualistic relationship
Cohesion-tension model A mechanism that descrives how water and minerals travel upward in xylem cells
Transperation Phenomenon that explains how water can completely resist gravity & travel upwards.
Cohesion Ability to stay linked in a chain
Adhesion Ability to stick to the inside of a straw
Turgor pressure The force of the water creating this bulge in the guard cells
Source Location where sugar is made or stored
Sink Location of where sugar will be used
Pressure-flow model Transporting sugar from the source to the sink
Created by: KrystenK