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Chapter 1 A&P Vocab

Chapter 1 A&P

TermDefinition
Human Anatomy the study of the structure of the human body
Human Physiology the study of the functions of the human body
Cell the smallest unit capable of carrying out the functions of life
Metabolism the sum of the bodys chemical reactions
Growth an increase in the size of an individual cell or an increase in the number of cells; occurs when anabolic processes outweigh catabolic processes
Excretion the process by which waste products are removed from the body
Responsiveness the property of living organisms by which they sense & react to changes in their environment
Reproduction the production of new cells within an organism or the production of offspring
Chemical a substance with a unique molecular composition that is used in or produced by chemical processes
Tissue a group of structurally and functionally related cells & their extracellular matrix
Organ two or more tissues combined to produce a structure that has a recognizable shape & that performs a specialized task
Organ System two or more organs that work together to carry out a broad function in the body
Systemic Anatomy the study of the human body taken from the perspective of individual organ systems
Regional Anatomy the study of the human body taken from the perspective of specific body regions
Surface Anatomy the study of the surface marking of the human body
Gross Anatomy the study of the structures of the human body that can be seen with the unaided eye
Microscopic Anatomy the study of the structures of the human body that require the use of a microscope for observation
Hystology the study of tissues
Cytology the study of cells
Anatomical Position the standard position in which anatomical specimen is presented, in which a subject is facing forward, arms at the side with the palms facing outward, & the feet are shoulder width apart
Anterior toward the front; VENTRAL
Posterior toward the back; DORSAL
Superior toward the head; CRANIAL
Inferior away from the head or towards the tail; CAUDAL
Proximal a position that is closer to the point of origin; usually the trunk
Distal a position that is farther away from the point of origin; usually the trunk
Medial a position that is closer to the midline of the body or a body part
Lateral a position that is farther away from the midline of the body or a body part
Superficial a position that is closer to the surface of the body
Deep a position that is farther away from the surface of the body or ore within the bodys interior
Axial Region the portion of the body consisting of the head, neck, & trunk
Appendicular Region the portion of the body consisting of the upper & lower limbs
Sagittal Plane a plane of section that divides the body or body part into right & left portions
Midsagittal Plane a plane of section that divides the body or body part into equal right & left portions; MEDIAN PLANE
Parasagittal Plane a plane of section that divides the body or body part into unequal right & left portions
Frontal Plane a plane of section that divides the body or body part into anterior & posterior portions; CORONAL PLANE
Transverse Plane a plane of section that divides the body or body part into superior & inferior or proximal & distal portions; HORIZONTAL PLANE or CROSS SECTION
Oblique Plane taken at an angle & is useful for examining structures, such as knee joint
Dorsal Body Cavity the major body cavity located mostly on the posterior side of the body
Ventral Body Cavity the major body cavity located mostly on the anterior side of the body
Cranial Cavity a dorsal body cavity located within the skull that houses the brain
Vertebral Cavity a dorsal body cavity located within the vertebral column that houses the spinal cord
Diaphragm the dome-shaped muscle located between the thoracic & abdominal cavities; the main muscle for breathing
Thoracic Cavity a ventral body cavity located within the area superior to the diaphragm that encompasses the area of the thorax
Abdominopelvic Cavity a ventral body cavity located within the area inferior to the diaphragm that encompasses the area of the abdomen & the pelvis
Pleural Cavity a thin potential space between the parietal & visceral pleural membranes surrounding the lungs; contains a thin layer of serous fluid
Peritoneal Cavity the narrow space between the visceral & parietal peritoneal membranes that is filled with serous fluid
Hypochondriac Region regions below cartilage of ribs
Epigastric Region region above stomach
Lumbar Region same region as lumbar vertebrae
Umbilical Region region over umbilicus
Iliac/Inguinal Region over the iliac & inguinal region
Hypogastric Region lies below the stomach
Serous Membranes thin sheets of tissue that envelop certain organs & produce serous fluid
Serous Fluid a thin, watery secretion from a serous membrane that lubricates an organ in a cavity within the serous membrane
Visceral Layer the inner layer that contacts the organ
Parietal Layer the outer layer that attaches to surrounding structures
Pleural Membrane around the lungs, consists of the parietal pleural & the visceral pleura
Pericardial Membrane around the heart, consists of parietal pericardium & the visceral pericardium
Peritoneal Membrane around abdominal organs, consists of parietal peritoneum & visceral peritoneum
Homeostasis the maintenance of the body's stable internal environment
Feedback Loops a homeostatic control mechanism in which a change in a regulated variable causes effects that feed back & affect that same variable.
Negative Feedback Loop the response in which the change in a regulated variable in one direction results in actions that cause changes in the variable in the opposite direction
Positive Feedback Loop a type of feedback loop in which the effectors activity increases, reinforcing the initial stimulus & amplifying the response of the effector
Set Point the normal range of values of a regulated variable
Receptor a protein within a membrane that binds to a ligand
Control Center the component of a feedback loop that receives a stimulus from a receptor & regulates the output of an effector
Effector cell or organ that causes a physiological response
Principle of Complementarity of Structure & Function a core principle of anatomy & physiology; states that the structure of a chemical, cell, tissue, or organ is always such that it best suits its function
Gradient a condition in which more of something exists in one area than in another & the two areas are connected
Created by: KelseyDMiller