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# Atomic Theory Chem

Term | Definition |
---|---|

Planck's Hypothesis | Energy is quantized, and energy of a wavelength is related to its frequency |

the higher the frequency... | ... the higher the energy |

wavelength and frequency are _____ proportional | inversely |

matter has wavelike properties called | wave-particle duality of nature |

quantum mechanics | very small pieces of matter moving very quickly |

Newtonian mechanics | matter under usual conditions |

Heisenburg Uncertainty Principle | Its impossible to know both the location and direction of an atom (RIP Bohr model) |

Scroedinger's Equations | modern atomic theory; describes with 90% probability where electrons are likely to be found |

Aufbau Principle | electrons occupy the lowest energy orbitals first |

Pauli Exclusion Principle | an atomic orbital can only hold two electrons, each with a different spin |

Hund's Rule | with orbitals of the same energy, single electrons occupy each orbital before they pair up |

Principle Quantum Number (n) | tells the principle energy level of the electron and distance from nucleus |

the greatest number of electrons that can be found is each energy level can be calculated with the equation: | 2n^2 |

Second Quantum Number (l) | tells you the sublevels of the electron (s, p, d, f) |

S holds | 2 electrons and is shaped like a sphere |

P holds | 6 electrons and is shaped like a dumbell |

D holds | 10 electrons |

F holds | 14 electrons |

Third Quantum Number (m): the space occupied by one pair of electrons is called an | orbital (each sublevel has half the number of orbitals as it does electrons) |

Fourth Quantum Number (s) | Spin (in a given orbital, each electron must *probably* spin in a different direction) |