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Biology Chapter 3

The Organic Molecules of Life

Organic Molecule Contains atoms of carbon and hydrogen. Make up portions of cells, tissues, and organs.
Biological Molecules Another name for organic molecules.
Isomers Molecules with different structures, but the same combinations of atoms.
Functional Group A specific combination of bonded atoms that always has the same chemical properties and therefore always reacts the same way.
Hydrophobic (Not soluble in water)
Hydrophilic (Soluble in water)
Monomers Subunits
Polymer When many monomers join
Dehydration Synthesis Reaction A cell uses the same type of reaction to synthesize any type of biological molecule.
Hydrolysis Reaction Water is used to break the bond holding monomers together.
Carbohydrates Used as an immediate energy source.
Monosaccharides Have only a single sugar molecule, also known as simple sugars.
Glucose Has six carbon atoms, a molecular formula of C6H12O6
Ribose Pentose monosaccharide sugar found in RNA, has 5 carbon atoms.
Deoxyribose With 5 carbon atoms, found in the nucleic acids RNA & DNA.
Disaccharide Contains 2 monosaccharides linked together by a dehydration synthesis reaction.
Polysaccharides Polymers of monosaccharides. Short term energy storage molecules due to size.
Starch Plants store glucose as _____?
Glycogen Animals store glucose as ______?
Cellulose The most abundant of all the carbohydrates, which in turn are the most abundant of all the organic molecules on Earth.
Chitin A polymer of glucose molecules. Found in a variety of organisms: animals and fungi.
Lipids Insoluble in water. Example: Salad Dressing
Fats Examples: bacon fat, lard & butter
Oils Examples: corm oil, olive oil, & coconut oil.
Glycerol A subunit molecule of fats and oils. Contains 3 -OH groups. Is soluble in water.
-OH These groups are polar
Fatty Acid Has a long chain of carbon atoms bonded only to hydrogen, with a carboxyl group at one end.
Triglycerides 3 long fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule
Unsaturated fatty acids Have double-bonds in the carbon chain where ever the number of hydrogens is less than 2 per carbon atom (causes a bend in the carbon chain)
Saturated fatty acids Have no double bonds between the carbon atoms.
Trans fat Contains fatty acids that have been partially hydrogenated to make them more saturated.
Monounsaturated one double bond
Polyunsaturated many double bonds
Phospholipids Contains a phosphate functional group
Steroids Lipids that possess a unique carbon skeleton made of four fused rings. (Insoluble in water, DO NOT contain fatty acids)
Cholesterol Component of animal cell's plasma membrane, precursor of other steroids such as sex hormones testosterone and estrogen.
Proteins Primary importance in structure and function of cells.
Enzymes Many proteins are, bring reactants together, speed up chemical reactions in cells.
Transport Protein Channel & carrier proteins in plasma membrane allow substances to enter & exit cells.
Support Protein Such as keratin in hair & fingernails, and collagen which lends support to skin, ligaments, & tendons
Metabolism Protein Bring reactants together, speed up chemical reactions in cells.
Defense Protein Example: Antibodies, combine with disease-causing agents to prevent those agents from destroying cells & causing diseases and disorders.
Regulation Proteins Serve as intercellular messengers that influence the metabolism of cells. Insulin regulates the concentration of glucose in the blood, human growth hormone(hGH) contributes to determining the height of an individual
Motion Proteins Actin & myosin allow parts of cells to move & cause muscles to contract.
Amino Acids A central carbon atoms bonds to a hydrogen atom, 2 functional groups, & a side chain or R group
Peptide Bond 2 amino acids join by a dehydration synthesis reaction between the carboxyl group of one & the amino group of another. Resulting covalent bond between 2 amino acids.
Peptide 2 or more amino acids covalently bonded together
Polypeptide A chain of many amino acids joined by peptide bonds.
Primary structure A protein's sequence of amino acids
Secondary Structure When portions of the amino acid chain take on a certain orientation in space, depending on the number & identity of the amino acids present in the chain.
Tertiary Structure Overall 3-dimentional shape that results from the folding & twisting of its secondary structure.
Denatured Broken down and inactivated
Quaternary Structure Contain more than one polypeptide chain.
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (Nucleic acids)
RNA Ribonucleic acid (Nucleic acids)
Nucleic acids DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) & RNA (Ribonucleic acid)
Nucleotide Monomer of nucleic acid
Complimentary Base Pairing The base guanine (G) is always paired with cytosine (C) & Adenine (A) is always paired with thymine (T)
Created by: KrystenK