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French Revolution

For use on the French Revolution test on Friday, December 14

Louis XIV Sun King of France; ruled for 72 years, built Versailles
Versailles palace outside of Paris with over 700 rooms; seat of government
Louis XV grandson of Louis XIV; grandfather of Louis XVI; almost assassinated by Robert Damiens
Louis XVI married to Marie-Antoinette; four children; weak ruler who believed in absolutism
Marie-Antoinette wife of Louis XVI; came from Austria; uncontrollable spending; not well-liked by the French people
Marie-Therese oldest daughter of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette; only member of the royal family to survive the French Revolution
Louis-Joseph dauphin who died at age 7 during the Estates-General
Louis-Charles dauphin who was imprisoned and tortured; died at age 10
Sophie infant daughter of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette who died at age 11 months
war debt American Revolution; Seven Years War
royal debt maintaining Versailles, Marie-Antoinette's dress allowance, gambling, entertainment, jewelry
food shortages droughts caused food prices to rise for peasants
"Let them eat cake." Phrase supposedly said by Marie-Antoinette when peasants couldn't afford to buy bread.
chateaux large estates in France where most of the peasants lived under harsh conditions
Ancien Regime old order in France before the revolution
Robert Damiens tried to assassinate Louis XV; last person drawn and quartered in France; his death outraged members of the Enlightenment
First Estate members of the clergy (church); about 1% of the population, owned 10% of land, paid little in taxes
Second Estate members of the nobility; about 3% of the population, owned 80% of the land, paid little in taxes
Third Estate all other members of society; about 96% of the population; paid almost all of the taxes
bourgeoisie wealthy merchants and artisans who owned land and paid heavy taxes; about 8% of the population
city workers paid low wages and high taxes; often rioted when food supplies were short
peasants about 80% of the population; paid most of the taxes
ideas of the Enlightenment inspired members of the Third Estate to try to rise up and change their way of life
Estates-General meeting called by Louis XVI to try to solve France's financial crisis; began on May 5, 1789
National Assembly members of the Third Estate that decided during the Estates-General to write a constitution for France
Tennis Court Oath agreement by the National Assembly to continue to meet despite Louis XVI's opposition to write a constitution for France
Storming of the Bastille mob of angry peasants and city workers who tore down a French prison looking for weapons and gunpowder to defend themselves against the king's army; July 14, 1789
Great Fear July 20-August 5, 1789; belief by the peasants that there was a plot to starve them; they attacked the churches and nobility all over France
August 4, 1789 National Assembly abolishes feudalism forever; takes away rights for the First and Second Estates
Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen (DRMC) document published on August 26, 1789 that outlined the rights of people in France; fair trials, innocent until proven guilty, freedom of religion, fair taxes, etc.
Mob of Angry Women 6,000 poor women of Paris attacked Versailles on October 5, 1789 to demand bread; they forced the royal family to come back to Paris
Flight to Varennes idea by the royal family to escape France, raise an army, and come back to fight; they were caught in a small village close to the border
Prussia and Austria two countries that were angered by the treatment of the royal family and attacked France
arrest and trial of Louis XVI accused of treason; found guilty by a vote of 693-0
execution of Louis XVI January 21, 1793; beheaded in the guillotine
arrest and trial of Marie-Antoinette accused of indecency, stealing money, plotting against the country (treason)
execution of Marie-Antoinette October 16, 1793; taken to the guillotine by tumbrel (cart); last words were, "Pardon me, Sir, I meant not to do it."
Antoine Simon drunken cobbler who brainwashed and beat Louis-Charles in prison
Reign of Terror September 15, 1793-July 28, 1794; time when many people who were thought to be against the revolution were arrested and executed
guillotine execution device used during the Reign of Terror, known as the National Razor
Jean-Paul Marat revolutionary writer who accused many of being against the revolution, printed lies to further his causes; stabbed in his bathtub by Charlotte Corday
Charlotte Corday stabbed Marat in his bathtub to "save 100,000 lives"
Committee of Public Safety temporary government of France during the Reign of Terror; led by Robespierre; conducted trials and executions
Olympe de Gouges playwright and women's rights activist who wrote a declaration of rights for women; executed for opposing the death penalty
Dr. Joseph Guillotin invented the guillotine as an execution method that was equal for all
tricoteuses group of women who sat and knitted at executions during the Reign of Terror
Maximilien Robespierre leader of the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror; eliminated religion and fair trials; was shot in the face, then executed
new French calendar eliminated all religious celebrations; 10 day weeks; 30 day months, 5 festival days at the end of the year; everything named for nature
Madame Tussaud wax modeler who made masks of famous people during the Reign of Terror; escaped to London and opened a museum
Cult of the Supreme Being new religion started by Robespierre; deism replaced Christianity
Girondins radicals who only wanted to get rid of the monarchy, did not want bloodshed
Jacobins radicals who used violence and terror to get what they wanted
Napoleon's early life born on Corsica, went to military school, specialized in artillery
Napoleon's military career became leader of the French army at age 26; fought Austria, U.K., invaded Russia (lost)
Joséphine de Beauharnais Napoleon's first wife; couldn't have children
Napoleon crowned as emperor December 2, 1804
Marie-Louise Napoleon's second wife; gave birth to one son
first exile sent to the island of Elbe after losing to Russia
Hundred Days Napoleon escapes from Elba, returns to France and takes over, then loses the Battle of Waterloo
Battle of Waterloo final defeat of Napoleon in Belgium, exiled for the second time
second exile sent to the island of St. Helena; died in May 5, 1821
results of the French Revolution end of feudalism, end of the monarchy (for a while), church came under government control, use of the metric system, bourgeoisie and the land owners became the dominant social class, tax and legal codes were made more fair, idea of democracy spread
Marquis de Lafayette American Revolution hero who returned home to lead the French National Guard
Marquis de Launay governor of the Bastille who was executed in 1789
liberté, égalité, fraternité motto of the French Revolution
Created by: westrick