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Chapter 15 Blood

TermDefinition
Plasma part of the blood that contains the gamma globulins, fibrinogen, and albumin
hemopoiesis process of blood cell production
hematrocrit (HCT) blood test that indicates the percentage of blood cells in a sample of blood; assumed to be the percentage of red blood cells (RBCs)
hemoglobin component of the red blood cell to which the oxygen is attached
thrombocytes platelets
leukocytes white blood cells (WBCs)
bone marrow biopsy a sample of developing blood cells is withdrawn from the sternum of iliac crest; this procedure can detect abnormal blood cells
erythrocytes red blood cells (RBCs)
differential count blood test that indicates the percentage of each type of white blood cell in a sample of blood
intrinsic factor protein secreted by the stomach that is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12
erythropoietin hormone that stimulates the production of RBCs
hematology the study of blood
bone marrow tissue that makes blood cells; tissue that is impaired in myelosuppression
blast cell an immature cell
erythropoiesis process of RBC production by the bone marrow
thrombopoiesis process of platelet production by the bone marrow
leukopoiesis process of white blood cells (WBCs) production
formed elements contains the erythroctyes, leukocytyes, and thrombocytes; a decrease in this paart is indicative of anemia; an increase in this part lowers the hematrocrit; normally colored red; this component decreases in the dehydrated state
plasma contains the plasma proteins, contains the albumin, clotting factors, and globulins; removal of the clotting factors from this part produces serum; contains the RBCs, WBCs and platelets; normally colored pale yellow
WBCs small, highly phagocytic granulocyte, includes lymphoctes and monocytes, includes neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils, is concerned primarily with phagocytosis, is composed of granulocytes and agranulocytes, leukocytosis and leukopenia,
RBCs antigens A&B, delivers oxygen to the cells in the body, life span is about 120 days, breaks down into protein, bilirubin, &iron; is filled primarily with hemoglobin, the immature cells is the reticulocyte; its rapid breakdown causes hyperbilirubin
Platelet a deficiency causes petechiae formation and bleeding,derived from the megakaryocyte, primarily concerned with hemostasis, thrombocytopenia and bleeding stickiness and plug
RBCs is decreased in anemia, synthesized in response to erythropoietin, the Rh factor, its rapid breakdown causes jaundice; plasma levels are monitored through changes in the HCT; involved in a hemolytic blood transfusion reaction
RBCs intrinsic and extrinsic factors are necessary for its synthesis, requires iron for its synthesis and function
WBCs granulocytopenia and infection, contributes to the formation of pus, shift to the left, segs, polys, PMNs, bands cells
thrombus a blood clot
prothrombin activator enzyme that converts prothrombin to thrombin
fibrin threads protein strands that actually form the blood clot, drug that edcreases the fromation of prothrombin in the liver
embolus a traveling blood clot
hemostasis stoppage of bleeding
calcium element necessary for prothrombin to thrombin
thrombin
heparin an anticoagulant that removes thrombin from the clotting process
coumadin drug that prolongs the prothrombin time (PT), causes hpoprothrombinenia
fibrinolysis enzyme that activates fibringogen to fibrin
plasmin enzyme that dissolves clots
thrombolyrics drugs that are called clot busters
hemolysis bursting of red blood cells
coagulation process refers to the series of reactions that results in the formation of a blood clot
platelets derived from the megakaryocyte, thrombocytes, the traget of aspirin
type A+ blood type that contains only anti-B antibodies
type B+ blood type that contains only anti-A antibodies
type AB+ and Rh factor the universal recipient, the plasma of this blood type contains neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies, a person with this type of blood can receive (by transfusion) type A, type B, type AB or type O, blood type that includes the A antigen, the B antigen,
type O- the red blood cells of this blood type contains both anti-A & anti-B antibodies, plasma of this blood type contains both anti-A antibodies and anti-B antibodies, universal donor, a person with this blood type can receive (by transfusion) only type 0-blood
Rh factor the positive and negative signs (e.g., A+, A-) refer to this antigen
erythrobloastosis fetails severe hemolytic reaction in the fetus that is caused by an antigen-antibody reaction involving the blood cells of the mother and fetus
hemolysis the administration of mismatched blood causes this serious condition, consequences of administering type A+ blood to a patient who is type AB-
kernicterus a serious neurological complication of erythroblastosis fetalis that results in severe development delay
type O- a person with type A- blood can receive this type of blood, a person with type B- blood can receive this type of blood
hemolytic anemia anemia that characterizes erythroblastosis fetalis, anemia that is characterized by jaundice,the anemia most often associated with kernicterus
folic acid deficiency anemia a megablastic anemia thatis commonly seen i pregnant women and patients with alcoholism
pernicious anemia caused by impaired function of the parietal cells in the stomach; they are unable to secrete intrinsic factor, a megaloblastic anemia that is treated with vitamin B12 injections, the lack of intrinsic factor impairs the absorption of extrinsic factor
sickle cell aneima a hereditary anemia that causes the red blood cells to form a rigid crescent shape, the most painful enemias
iron deficiency anemia a hypochromic microcytic anemia that is often caused by a chronic slow-bleeding lesion endemic in a low-income population, treated with ferrous sulfate, an infant who drinks only whole milk for the first yr. of life is likely to develop this type of anemia, anemia associated with occult blood (positive guaiac test on stools)
aplastic anemia reticulocytes are usually absent, accompanied by granulocytpenia and thrombocytopenia, myelosuppression, often seen in a cancer patient who is being treated with powerful cytotoxic drugs and radiation
anemia of chronic renal failure a diabetic with end-stage renal disease (diabetic nephropathy)
Polymorphs (polys), segs, and band cells are neutrophils
Which of the following is a true statement? several clotting factors are synthesized in the liver
myelosuppression diminishes the number of blood cells
vasospasm, platelet plug, adn blood coagulation are most related to which process? hemostasis
carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin, causing hypoxemia
which of the following descriptions is most related to an erythrocyte? a hemoglobin-containing cell that carries oxgyen
which of the following is the stimulus for the release of erythropoietin? lowered levels of oxygen
which of the following is least descriptive of bilirubin? originates in hemoglobin
erythroblastosis fetalis is most likely to occur in which of the following situations? mother is type A-; baby is type A+
which combination is correct? hypoprothrombinemia and bleeding
granulocytopenia is most related to neutropenia and infection
which of the following is not a function of plasma proteins? fight infection
rapid hemolysis causes hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice
a person in chronic kidney failure is anemic because his kidneys do not secrete adequate erythropoietin
tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a drug that activates plasmin and therefore dissolves clots
which of the following patients is mostly likely to benefit from an injection of vitamin K? the hypoprothrombinemic patient
albumin, globulins, and fibringogen are all plasma proteins
which condition is caused by venous stasis? thrombosis
which of the following patients is most likely to have a low ritculocyte count? the patient who is myelosuppression
which group is incorrect? types of anemia: iron deficiency, pernicious, sickle cell
which group is incorrect? anticoagulants: heparin, coumadin, plasmin, tPA
which group is incorrect? plasma proteins: albunim, fibrinogen, platelets
red blood cells contains the antigens A and B, requires erythropoietin for production, the reticulocyte is immature cell of this, measured as the hematocrit, primarily concerned with the delivery of oxygen
white blood cells includes the neutrophil, esosinophil and basophil, primarily concerned with infection, classified as granulocytes and agranulocytes
platelets a deficiency causes petechiae and bleeding, stickiness and plug both describe the functional role of this cell type
embolus a traveling blood clot
heparin an anticoagulant that works by removing thrombin (antithrombin activity)
plasmin enzyme that dissolves
warfarin (coumadin) drug that interferes with the hepatic utilization of vitamin k in the synthesis of prothrombin
thrombus a blood clot in the leg
A this blood type contains only anti-B antibodies
AB this blood type can receive type B and type A blood
O the blood cells that contain neither the A antigen nor the B antigen, universal donor, this blood type contains both anti-A and anti-B antibodies
the erythrocyte contains hemoglobin and transports oxygen
the neutrophil is a granulocytic phagocyte
thrombin activates fibrinogen
what statement is true regarding the administration of type A+ blood to a type O- recipient? administration of type A+ blood to a type O- recipient causes hemolysis
erythropoietin is synthesized by the kidneys, stimulates the bone marrow to make RBCs, is released by the kidney in response to hypoxemia
which of the following is most likely to cause jaundice? hemolysis
which of the following is a true statement? the neutrophil is a phagocytic granulocyte
hypoprothrombinemia and a prolonged prothrombin time is associated with bleeding
hyperbilirubin can be caused by hemolysis, causes jaundice, can cause kernicterus
which of the following is least related to heme? phagocytosis
Created by: Bearlover