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QDC1: Week 1

Quality Management

The ability of a product or service to consistently meet or exceed customer expectations is what? Quality
Prize established by the Japanese and awarded annually to firms that distinguish themselves with quality management programs is what? Deming Prize
Shewhart Control Charts and Variance Reduction
Deming 14 Points and Special versus Common Causes of Variation
Juran Quality is Fitness-for-Use and Quality Trilogy
Feigenbaum Quality is a Total Field and The Customer defines Quality
Crosby Quality is Free and Zero Defects
Ishikawa Cause-and-Effect Diagrams and Quality Circles
Taguchi Taguchi Loss Function
Ohno and Shingo Continuous Improvement
Performance, aesthetics, special features, conformance, reliability, durability, perceived quality, and serviceability is what? Dimensions of Quality
What are the four primary determinants of quality? Design, How well the product/service conforms to the design, Ease of use, and Service after delivery.
What refers to the intention of designers to include or exclude certain features in a product or service? Quality of design
What refers to the degree to which goods and services conform to the intent of the designers? Quality of Conformance
What are the four consequences of poor quality? Loss of Business, Liability, Productivity, and Costs
Costs of activities designed to ensure quality or uncover defects is what? Appraisal Costs
Costs of preventing defects from occurring is what? Prevention Costs
Costs caused by defective parts or products or by faulty services is what? Failure Costs
Failures discovered during production is what? Internal Failures
Failures discovered after delivery to the customer is what? External Failures
What approach focuses on the economics of quality efforts? Return on Quality (ROQ)
Annual award given by the U.S. government to recognize quality achievements of U.S. companies is what? Baldrige Award
European award for organizational excellence is what? European Quality Award
What pertains to a set of international standards on quality management and quality assurance, critical to international business? ISO 9000
What pertains to a set of international standards for assessing a company's environmental performances? ISO 14000
What pertains to a set of international standards that pertains to the quality and performance of office equipment that contains reused components? ISO 24700
A philosophy that involves everyone in an organization in a continual effort to improve quality and achieve customer satisfaction is what? Total Quality Management (TQM)
Incorporating design elements that prevent incorrect procedures is what? Fail-safing
What pertains to a philosophy that seeks to make never-ending improvements to the process of converting inputs into outputs? Continuous Improvement
What is the Japanese term for continuous improvement? Kaizen
The philosophy of making each worker responsible for the quality of his or her work is what? Quality at the Source
A business process for improving quality, reducing costs, and increasing customer satisfaction is what? Six Sigma
A six-sigma process: define, measure, analyze, improve, and control is what? DMAIC
What is an approach to continuous improvement that integrates lean operation principles and six sigma techniques? Lean/Six Sigma
What are the basic steps in the TQM problem solving process? Define the problem and establish an improvement goal, Develop performance measures and collect data, Analyze the problem, Generate potential solutions, Choose a solution, Implement the solution, and Monitor the solution to see if it accomplishes the goal
A framework for problem solving and improvement activities is what? Plan-do-study-act (PDSA)
What is a systematic approach to improving a process? Process Improvement
What diagram shows the steps in a process? Flowchart
A tool for recording and organinzing data to identify a problem is what? Check Sheet
A chart of an empirical frequency distribution is what? Histogram
What is a technique for focusing attention on the most important problem areas? Pareto Analysis
What can be useful in deciding if there is a correlation between the values of two variables? Scatter Diagram
A statistical chart of time-ordered values of a sample statistic is what? Control Chart
What diagram is used to search for the cause(s) of a problem? Cause-and-Effect diagram (Fishbone diagram or Ishikawa diagram)
What pertains to a tool for tracking results over a period of time? Run Chart
Technique for generating a free flow of ideas in a group of people is what? Brainstorming
A tool used to organize data into logical categories is what? Affinity Diagram
Groups of workers who meet to discuss ways of improving products or processes is what? Quality Circles
Technique for identifying problems and collecting information is what? Interviewing
Process of measuring performance against the best in the same or another industry is what? Benchmarking
A method of asking questions about a process that includes what, why, where, when, who, how, and how much is what? 5W2H Approach
A process that evaluates output relative to a standard and takes corrective action when output doesn't meet standards is what? Quality Control
What is an appraisal activity that compares goods or services to a standard? Inspection
A product or service conforms to specifications is what? Quality of Conformance
What is a statistical evaluation of the output of a process? Statistical Process Control (SPC)
What is a natural variation in the output of a process, created by countless minor factors? Random Variation
In process output, a variation whose cause can be identified (A nonrandom variation) is what? Assignable Variation
A theoretical distribution of sample statistics is what? Sampling distribution
What is the distribution of sample averages tends to be normal regardless of the shape of the process distribution? Central Limit Theorem
What are the steps of the effective control process? Define, Measure, Compare, Evalute, Correct, and Monitor Results.
What is a time-ordered plot of sample statistics, used to distinguish between random and nonrandom variability? Control Chart
The dividing lines between random and nonrandom deviations from the mean of the distribution is what? Control Limits
Concluding a process is not in control when it actually is what? Type I Error
Concluding a process is in control when it is not is what? Type II Error
What generates data that is measured? Variables
What generates data that is counted? Attributes
Control chart used to monitor the central tendency of a process is what? Mean Control Chart
Control chart used to monitor process dispersion is what? Range Control Chart
Control chart for attributes, used to monitor the proportion of defective items in a process is what? p-Chart
Control chart for attributes, used to monitor the number of defects per unit is what? c-Chart
A test for patterns in a sequence is what? Run Test
Sequence of observations with a certain characteristic is what? Run
What is a range of acceptable values established by engineering design or customer requirements? Specifications
What is a natural or inherent variability in a process? Process Variability
What is the inherent variability of process output relative to the variation allowed by the design specification? Process Capability
Created by: Rika78



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