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Artic/Phono Exam 1

Intro to Artic/Phono

A _________________ is an articulatory or acoustic parameter that according to its presence or absence helps define a phoneme. distinctive feature
Chomsky and Halle (1968) developed what is now a classic ________ system by which a phoneme (a consonant or vowel) is given a ________ value if a feature is present or a ________ value if the feature is absent. binary; plus (+); minus (-)
For example, the distinctive features ___________ and ___________ can be equated with the traditional phonetic term __________, and the distinctive feature ______________ is comparable to the more traditional term _________. strident, continuant; fricative; interrupted, stop
The 16 distinctive features of consonants vocalic, consonantal, high, back, low, anterior, coronal, round, tense, continuant, nasal, strident, sonorant, interrupted, lateral, voice
vocalic sounds made with no marked vocal tract constriction; all vowels are this
consonantal sounds that have a marked constriction along the midline region of the vocal tract
high sounds made with the tongue elevated above the neutral position required for the production of a schwa
back sounds made with the tongue retracted from the neutral position required for the production of a schwa
low sounds made with the tongue lowered from the neutral position of a schwa
anterior sounds made with a point of constriction located farther forward than that of the palatal "sh" sound
coronal sounds made with the tongue blade raised above the neutral position required for the production of a schwa
round sounds made with the lips rounded or protruded
tense sounds made with a relatively greater degree of muscle tension or contraction at the root of the tongue
continuant sounds made with an incomplete point of constriction; the flow of air is not entirely stopped at any point
nasal sounds that are resonated in the nasal cavity
strident sounds made by forcing the airstream through a small opening, resulting in the production of intense noise
sonorant sounds made by allowing the airstream to pass relatively unimpeded through the oral or nasal cavity
interrupted sounds produced by complete blockage of the airstream at their point of constriction
lateral sound made by placing the front of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (midline closure) and lowering the midsection of the tongue on both sides (lateral opening)
voice sound produced with vibration of vocal folds
Consonants that are made with a complete closure or narrow constriction of the oral cavity, so that the airstream is stopped or frication noise is produced are collectively termed ____________; these include the _________, ____________, and _____________. obstruents; stops, fricatives, and affricates
_________ sounds are high-frequency sounds that have a more strident quality and longer duration than most other consonants; ____________ include __________ and _______________. sibilant; sibilants, fricatives, affricates
__________ and ____________ are sometimes called ____________ because of the approximating nature of the contact between the two articulators that help form them. glides, liquids; approximants
a sound with /r/ coloring is sometime termed _______; this term may be used for the /r/ consonant and its various allophonic variations. rhotic
__________ are sounds that serve as a nucleus for a syllable; all vowels are this, while most consonants are not. syllabics
cognate pairs sounds that are identical in their manner of production and place of articulation and differ only in their voicing feature
consonant clusters are also known as ___________. blends
__________ of children who have a communication disorder may actually have a _______. 50 to 80%; SSD
_________ of ___________ may have SSDs. 15 to 16%; three-year olds
Some ______ of them may achieve normal speech production by age ___ with or without treatment. 75%; 6
the prevalence of SSDs drops to ______ by age ____. 3,8%; 6
________, ____________, and _________________ are typical risk factors. male sex; family history of SSDs; low maternal education
Some researchers have added early ______________________ that causes mild to moderate hearing loss to the risk list; findings are controversial. otitis media with effusion
___________________ may be a risk factor, mainly because it confounds with __________________. low socioeconomic condition; low maternal education
What are 2 common neurological conditions associated with SSDs? When neurological conditions are associated, the diagnosis may be childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) or developmental dysarthria (DD)
The most common organic (structural) condition is the ______________________. clefts of the lip and palate
neuromuscular problems can compromise the functioning of the speech mechanisms, such as paralysis, weakness, unrepaired cleft palate, anxiety
______________ refers to the molding of the airstream into speech sounds by the ____________, which are often classified into two major categories: __________ and _______________. articulation; articulators; moveable; immoveable
The _____________ articulators move toward and away from the _________________ articulators. moveable; immoveable
moveable articulators mobile articulators
immoveable articulators fixed articulators
Moveable articulators include the ___________, the _________, the ______________, and the _________. tongue; lips; soft palate; jaw
Divided into the ______, _________, __________, and _______, the __________ is the most important moveable articulator because it helps shape the majority of speech sounds. tip, blade, dorsum, root; tongue
The _______ is the thinnest part of the tongue and rests behind the lower front teeth. tip
The __________ is next to the tongue tip and lies just below the alveolar ridge blade
The ___________ is the largest area of the tongue, making contact with both the hard and soft palates. dorsum
The _________ of the tongue is its very back portion. root
The four __________ muscles (_________ and ___________________, _________________, and _____________) shape the tongue into various contours. intrinsic; superior; inferior longitudinals; transverse; vertical
Four ______________ muscles (______________, ______________, __________________, and ______________) help move the tongue into various positions within the oral cavity. extrinsic; genioglossus; hyoglossus; palatoglossus; styloglossus
The ________ are made up primarily of the __________________ muscle. lips; orbicularis oris
The _______ are made primarily in producing the __________ /p/, /b/, and /m/, the _____________ /f/ and /v/, and other consonants and vowels requiring varying degrees of lip movement. lips; bilabials; labiodentals
The jaw, or ____________, is a large bone of the face that facilitates articulation and resonance. mandible
The __________, or ______________, begins at the end of the _____________ (the roof of the mouth) and extends back toward the pharynx. velum, soft palate; hard palate
A small cone-shaped structure hanging from the velum is called the ________. uvula
The most important ________________ are the _________, _______________, and ________________. immoveable articulators; teeth, hard palate, alveolar ridge
The floor of the nose and the roof of the mouth, the _____________, is a bony structure separating the oral cavity from the nasal cavity; it is made up of two paired bones called the __________ and ______________. hard palate; maxilla; palatine bones
The __________ is subdivided into the ______________, the ________________, and the ________________. palatine process; alveolar process; premaxilla
The _______________ is made up most of the ____________. palatine process; hard palate
The ________________ (__________________) contains the socket that house the upper molar, bicuspid, and cuspid teeth. alveolar process (alveolar ridge)
phonetics the study of physical, physiological, and acoustic variables of speech sound production; includes acoustic, articulatory, experimental, and clinical branches
phonology the study of speech sounds, speech sound production, and the rules for combining sounds into meaningful words and sentences
The ________________ aspects include the buildup of subglottic air pressure that blows the vocal folds apart and causes them to vibrate. aerodynamic
Speech sounds are ____________ signals, with the physical properties of frequency, amplitude, and duration. acoustic
_____________ is the rate at which vocal folds vibrate, causing the sensation of vocal pitch. frequency
___________(_____________) is the magnitude of vibration, causing the sensation of loudness. amplitude; intensity
____________ is a measure of time during which vibrations are sustained. duration
_____________ are consonants and vowels and the ____________________ include such prosodic features as pitch, stress, rate of speech, and juncture. segmentals; suprsegmentals
_________ or __________ rate of speech may affect ___________ and _______________. faster, slower; prosody, intelligibility
___________ (e.g. a pause) helps make semantic or grammatical distinctions in speech. juncture
_______________ is the slight or significant change in sounds due to the influence of surrounding sounds in an utterance. coarticulation
Sounds are more distinct in isolated and deliberate production of a word (________________) "them" vs. "catch them" citation form
The text presents two major phonological approaches for analysis of speech sound disorders: linear, nonlinear
markedness constraint specifies whether a feature is more or less common across languages as well as in particular langauges
faithfulness constraint specifies that the child's output (speech sound production) be identical to the input (what the child hears - the sounds of one's own language).
_______________________ are errors in producing speech sounds. speech sound disorders
For the sake of convenience and simplicity, not necessarily because we agree with some of the linguistic theoretical underpinnings, we use the term _______________ to include ____________________ and ____________________. speech sound disorders; articulation disorders; phonological disorders
The term _____________ in the context of speech production means the movement of speech structures to vary the vocal tract configurations and make specific contacts between some of the structures to produce speech sounds. articulation
Therefore, __________________ were traditionally defined as difficulties in correctly producing individual speech sounds. articulation disorders
____________ have been traditionally described according to ______, ________, and ___________ dimensions. consonants; manner, place, voicing
_________________ indicates _______ the airstream that passes through the vocal tract is modified to form consonant. manner of articulation; how
________________ indicates __________ along the vocal tract a constriction is formed to produce a consonant. place of articulation; where
________ indicates __________ the vocal folds are vibrating during the consonant's production. voice; whether
manner of articulation refers to how the airstream that passes through the vocal tract is modified to produce consonants
place of articulation refers to the location in the vocal tract where the articulators contact and constrict the place to produce consonants
articulation in speech, movement of the speech mechanism to produce the sound of speech; one of the four basic processes involved in speech production
articulators organs of the speech production mechanism that help produce meaningful sound by interrupting the flow of exhaled air or by narrowing the space for its passage; include the lips, tongue, velum, jaw, hard palate, alveolar ridge, and teeth
phonetics study of speech sounds, their production and acoustic properties, and written symbols used to represent their production
phonology study of speech sounds, their production and acoustic properties, and written symbols used to represent their production
segmentals vowels and consonants
suprasegmentals the prosodic features of a language, including stress, intonation, timing, duration, and juncture
coarticulation articulatory movements for one phone that are carried over into the production of previous or subsequent phones; influence of one phone on another in perception or production
citation form sounds are more distinct in isolated and deliberate production of a word
speech sound disorders errors in producing speech sounds
articulation disorders problems in producing speech sounds
phonological disorders errors of many phonemes that form patterns or clusters
phonological processes many ways or patterns of simplifying difficult sound productions by omissions or substitutions
manner of production the degree and type of constriction of the vocal tract while producing certain speech sounds
place of articulation one of three factors used to classify consonants; refers to the location of articulatory contact or constriction
voicing the presence of vocal fold vibrations in the production of speech sounds; also termed voice
voiced sounds sounds made with vocal fold vibration
voiceless sounds sounds made without vocal fold vibration
cognates consonants produced in the same place and manner, except that one is voiceless and the other is voiced; in phonetic transcription they are typically written in pairs, with the voiceless sound given first
acoustics a branch of phonetics that pertains to the study of the science of sound; it includes the study of origin, transmission, modification, and effects of sound vibrations
vowel a speech sound produced with an unrestricted passage of the airstream through the oral cavity; a syllable-forming sound
stops speech sounds produced by completely stopping the airflow; also known as plosives
nasals speech sounds with nasal resonance added to them; produced while keeping the velopharyngeal port open
fricatives a category of speech sounds produced by severely constricting the oral cavity and forcing the air through the point of constriction
affricates a group of consonants with the characteristics of stops and fricatives
glides speech sounds that are produced by gradually change the shape of the articulators
liquids speech sounds produced with the least restriction of the oral cavity; also called semivowels; consists of /r/ and /l/
laterals sounds that are produced by letting air escape through the sides of the tongue; consists of /l/
rhotic distinctive feature term used for the /r/ consonant and its various allophonic variations
extrinsic muscles of the larynx laryngeal muscles with at least one attachment to structures other than the larynx
intrinsic muscles of the larynx muscles that begin and end within the larynx and include the throarytenoid, the criothyroid, the posterior cricoarytenoid, the lateral cricoarytenoid, and the interarytenoid muscles
glottis an opening that results when the vocal folds are abducted
adducted closed or nearly closed of the vocal folds
abducted open, drawn apart of the vocal folds
Bernoulli effect increased velocity and decreased pressure when gasses or liquids move through a constricted passage
central nervous system (CNS) the brain and spinal cord; essential for neurological control and integration of basic system functions
auditory system necessary for natural development of speech and language and self-monitoring of our own speech production
juncture a suprasegmental device that helps make semantic or grammatical distinctions in speech, including brief pauses to signal what might be represented by punctuation marks in written english
assimilation the effect one speech sound has on another when produced in close sequence, such that the sounds become more like each other; the effect can be so extensive that it can be perceptually identified
minimal pairs morphemes that are similar except for one sound (e.g. mit-sit, hot-pot, bake-bait); a method of selecting word pairs for treatment
morphophonemic rules sound alterations that result from joining one morpheme with another; rules specify how sounds are produced in combination in morphemes
phonotactics rules for how sounds can be combined to form syllables and how those sounds can be distributed; some rules vary across languages
onset one of the components of the syllable; the consonant or consonant cluster that initiates the syllable
nucleus the vowel or diphthong that follows the initial consonant or blend in a syllable
coda consonant segment or consonant cluster that follows the nucleus (vowel or diphthong) of a syllable
distinctive features unique characteristics that distinguish one phoneme from another
syllable structure processes describe sound changes that modify the syllable structure of words as the child attempts to produce the adult target
subsitution the production of a wrong sound in place of a right one
omission an absence of a required sound in a word position; a type od articulation error
distortions imprecise productions of speech sounds
addition a form of articulation error; a superfluous that does not belong in a word (e.g., in biga for big).
subsitution processes one class of sounds is substituted for another class of sounds; key is the process is sound "class" substitution (replacement of one sound for another
assimilation processes one sound changes to become like another (usually a neighboring sound); effect of a sound(s) on the production of another; can affect the manner of production, place of articulation, and voicing features
unstressed syllable deletion when the unstressed syllable or unstressed syllable is deleted
reduplication "doubling" is the partial repetition of a syllable of a target word, resulting in the creation of multi-syllable word
diminutization addition of /i/ or sometimes a consonant + /i/ to the target word; "cupi" for "cup" or "pepi" for "pencil"
epenthesis insertion of an unstressed vowel (usually a schwa) between 2 consonants; usually between the 2 consonants of a cluster or after a final voiced stop
consonant deletion a phonological process that describes the omission of initial or final consonants of words; a phonolgical problem
final consonant deletion omission of a singleton consonant or an entire consonant cluster (some vary with regard to the cluster) in word-initial position; rate in normal development; may represent a severe phonological disorder
cluster two or more consonant sounds made next to each other with no vowel separation; also blends
cluster reduction omission of one or more consonants of a cluster (e.g., top for stop)
cluster simplification omission or substitution of one or more sound segments in a consonant cluster; can be considered a phonological process if it occurs frequently in a child's phonological system
cluster deletion deletion of 1 or all members of the cluster (total or partial deletion); usually the most difficult to produce ("marked member" is deleted; the easier member is "unmarked member"
marked member the sound that is more difficult to produce
unmarked member the sound that is easier to produce
cluster substitution children usually progress from cluster reduction to substitution (replacement of 1 or all members by another sound; most common with cluster containing a liquid
stopping phonological process term used to describe patterned substitutions of stop consonants for fricatives and affricates
deaffrication replacement of an affricate by a stop or a fricative
fronting substituting sounds produced in the front of the mouth for sounds produced in the back of the mouth; classified as a phonological process that occurs in both normally developing children and children with phonological disorders
velar fronting phonological process characterized by the substitution of alveolar consonants for velar sounds; typical subsitutions include d/g, t/k and n/"ng;" however, others may be observed
depalatization subsitution of alveolar fricative or affricate for a palatal fricative or affricate
backing replacement of sounds with anterior place of constriction by sounds with a posterior placement; rare in normal development; may indicate a severe phonological disorder; typically affects alveolar and palatal consonants; usually /k/, /g/, /h/, and "ng"
liquid gliding substitution of a glide for a prevocalic liquid /r/ and /l/ usually replaced with either /r/ and /l/ usually replaced with /w/ or /j/; can also occur in clusters 'wook" for "look," or /jif/ for "leaf," and /gwin/ for "green"
vocalization replacement of a vowel for a syllabic liquid; can affect syllabic nasals for "schwars;" /pepo/ for "paper," /ebu/ for "able," or "simpo" for "simple"
labial assimilation non-labial consonant becomes a labial because of the influence of another labial in the word /mab/ for "moss"
velar assimilation non-velar consonant becomes a velar because of the influence of another velar in the word /gog/ for "goat" and /kik/ for "keep"
nasal assimilation non-nasal consonant becomes nasal because of the influence of another nasal in the word /non/ for "nose" and /mam/ for "mop"
alveolar assimilation non-alveolar consonant becomes an alveolar because of the influence of another alveolar in the word, "tot" for "toss" /dod/ for "door" or /sut/ for "soup"
prevocalic voicing voiceless sound preceding a vowel (prevocalic) becomes voiced; likely, taking on the voicing feature of the vowel that follows it /zut/ for "suit" for /bai/ for "pie"
postvocalic devoicing voiced obstruent (consonants made with complete for narrow constriction in the oral cavity so the airstream is stopped or friction noise is produced) following a vowel (postvocalic) becomes devoiced /bis/ for "bees" and "pick" for "pig"
consonant harmony another term sometimes used to describe assimilation processes
total assimilation sound that changes becomes identical to the sound that influenced it /mam/ for "mop"
partial assimilation sound that changes and only takes on some of the characteristics of the sound influencing it /man/ for "mop"
allophone variations of a phoneme
morpheme the smallest meaningful unit of a language
bound morpheme a morpheme that cannot convey meaning by itself; for example, the regular plural /s/ in the word cats; attached to a free morpheme for meaning
free morpheme a morpheme that can stand alone and mean something
phone in the study of speech production, a single speech sound represented by a single symbol in a phonetic system
phoneme a group or family of very closely related speech sounds that vary slightly in their production but are sufficiently similar acoustically that the listener perceives them as the same sound
strident consonant sounds made by forcing the airstream through a small opening, which results in intense noise
obstruents distinctive feature term used for consonants that are made with complete closure or narrow constriction of the oral cavity so that the airstream is stopped or fricttion noise is produced; include stops, fricatives, and affricates
sonorant a consonant sound produced with unobstructed flow of air at the point of constriction, including the following /m/, /n/, "ng", /l/, /r/, /j/, /w/
sibilants distinctive feature term applied to high frequency consonant sounds that have a more strident quality and longer duration than most other consonants
approximant sounds produced by an "approximating" contact between the two articulators that form them; includes liquids and glides
continuant distinctive feature applied to sounds made with an incomplete point of constriction; flow of air is not entirely stopped
consonant a conventional speech sound made by certain movements of the articulatory muscles that alter, interrupt, or obstruct the expired airstream; defined according to manner of production, place of articulation, and voicing dimensions
vocalic distinctive feature term used for sounds made without marked constriction of the vocal tract; includes all vowels and the consonants /l/ and /r/
consonantal a distinctive feature applied to sounds that have a marked constriction along the midline region of the vocal tract; includes all consonant sounds except /h/, /w/, and /j/
high distinctive feature term referring to sounds made with the tongue elevated above the neutral position required for a schwa
back a distinctive feature that characterizes sounds made in the back part of the oral cavity; the body of the tongue is retraced from the neutral position of the schwa during the production of sounds
low distinctive feature term used to describe sounds made with the tongue lowered for the neutral position of a schwa; in American English only the consonant /h/ has this feature
anterior distinctive feature characteristic of sounds made in the front region of the mouth, generally at the alveolar ridge or forward
coronal a distinctive feature used in reference to sounds made with the tongue blade raised above the neutral position required for the production of the schwa
round distinctive feature term applied to sounds made with th lips rounded or protruded
tense distinctive feature term applied to sounds that are made with a relatively greater degree of tension or contraction at the root of the tongue
interrupted distinctive feature term applied to sounds produced by complete blockage of the airstream at their point constriction; such sounds are the stops and the affricates
Created by: ryanriggs_90



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