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Biology Terms

Dependent Variable Responding Variable
Independent Variable Variable that is manipulated or changed during the experiment
Biology The study of Life
Science Process of testing and discovering/explaining various things in the natural world
Homeostasis Maintaining Stabibility
Metabolism all the chemical reactions taking place in an organism
Hypothesis Educated prediction or possible answer to an observatory problem that can be tested. It can be changed repeatedly if necessary.
Scientific Theory Well substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that is acquired through repeated tests that support the same conclusion. Can be changed
Scientific Law Several related hypotheses that have been confirmed through testing
Ion atom with a charge ; has lost or gained one or more electrons.
Hydrogen Bond A weak bond between two molecules that contain hydrogen: between two water molecules
Cohesion two molecules of the same type are attracted to one another
Adhesion two molecules of different types are attracted to one another
Polar molecule that is charged on one end (ex:water)
Organic Contains the element Carbon
Polymer large molecule made up of repeating units
Monomer small sub that bond together to make up a polymer
Hydrolysis Hydro = Water Lysis = Split ; The splitting of water A chemical reaction that involves the splitting of water molecules
Dehydration Synthesis Chemical reaction that occurres where a molecule of H2O is created
Biomolecule A molecule that is produced by living things
Carbohydrate Biomolecule made of C,H,O (Sugars, starches, glycogen) used for energy, energy storage and cell to cell recognition
Saccharide Word that means sugar
Lipid Biomolecule ; aka fat; made of glycerolt 3 fatty acids, used for energy storage, can also be oils and cholesterols
Protein Composed of amino acids; contains nitrogen; make up an organism
Nucleic Acids DNA & RNA, used for storage of genetic info. that is the blueprint for building proteins
Enzyme Proteins that speed up chemical reaction (can either break things, or put things together, usually ends in -ase)
Activation Energy The amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction.
Catalyst Substance that speeds up a chemical reaction. Ex: Enzyme & Lighter Fluid
PROkaryotic Cell with NO nucleus Ex:Bacteria
EUkariotic Cells that DO have a nucleus Ex: Everything other than bacteria
Nucleus Contains DNA for cell, makes RNA
Mitochondria Power house of the cell; makes energy
Ribosome Site for protein synthesis
Synthesis to make pr put together
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Highway system of the cell. Transports proteins and other things in cells. Can have ribosomes {Rough ER} or no ribosomes {smooth ER}
Golgi Body (Apparatus) Packages things for the cell
Vacuole Storage unit for the cell. In plants, it will hold LOTS of water.
Cell Membrane Gate keeper, monitors what goes in and out of cell.
Cell Wall Found in plants and bacteria, provides structure for the cell
Chloroplast Contains the green pigment chlorophyll site for photosynthesis
Nuclolus Found in nucleus, produces ribsomes
Microtubules Help with cell movements
Lysosome Gets rid of unwanted waste, recycles
Centrioles Helps with cell reproduction
Diffusion Movement of substances from a high to low concentration
Osmosis Diffusion of water
Hyper prefix meaning "more"
Hypo prefix meaning "less"
Iso prefix meaning "equal"
Selective Permeability Only certain things can go in and out of cell through cell membrane
Cyto prefix meaning "Cell"
Endo prefix meaning "Into"
Exo prefix meaning "Out" or "Exit"
Photo-synthesis Process that uses light to produce (put together) sugars.
Autotroph Auto = Self Troph = Feeder Organisms that can perform photosynthesis
Heterotroph Must consume food that is then converted to energy (ATP)
Cellular Respiration Process that uses food (glucose) to make ATP
ATP Adenosine Triphosphate: Cellular Energy
Chlorophyll Green pigment found in chloroplast. Site for photosynthesis.
Thyakoid Disk Shaped structure inside the chloroplast ; where chlorophyll resides.
Glycolysis "Glco" = sugar "Lysis" = to split The splitting of sugar
Somatic Cell Body Cell
Gamete Sex Cell
Chromosome Coiled DNA, visible under a microscope
Homologous Chromosomes Pair of chromosomes that contain same genetic information. 1 from mom 1 from dad
Centromere Center of the chromosome
Chromatid 1/2 of the X forming the chromosome
Mutation Change in the DNA sequence or chromosome structure
Cancer Uncontrolled cell growth
Diploid Cell with 2 sets of chromosomes; 1 set from each partner (ex:somatic cells.)
Haploid Cell with 1 set of DNA (ex:gametes)
DNA Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid : Polymer ; genetic blueprint that is the genetic code to produce proteins.
Double Helix Words that mean "twisted staircase" Shape of DNA.
Nucleotide Sugar, Phosphate & Nitrogen base ; DNA'S MONOMER
Nitrogen(ous) Base Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine in DNA. ( In RNA Uracil replaces Thymine )
Purine Type of nitrogen base { Adenine & Guanine }
Pyrimidine Type of nitrogen base { Thymine & Cytosine }
Replication Making an EXACT copy (replica)
Helicase enzyme that breaks down hydrogen bonds that hold nitrogen bases together ( unzips DNA )
DNA Polymerase enzyme that proofreads DNA, corrects mistakes.
Deoxyribose Sugar that is part of DNA backbone.
Gene Segment of DNA that codes for a protein.
Repressor Prevents a gene from being expressed, blocks movement of RNA polymerase.
Intron non-coding portion of DNA
Exon coding portions of DNA, codes for proteins
Point Mutation One nucletide changes/switched
Frameshift Mutation Inserting or deleting a nucleotide, causing nucleotides to shift, changes nearly every amino acid code in the protein from that point.
Genetics The study of HEREDITY
Gregor Mendel Monk who is known as the father of genetics
Monohybrid Cross Genetic cross involving one trait.
Phenotype Physical characteristic
Homozygous Genotype with 2 alike (same) alleles
Heterozygous Genotype with 2 different alleles
Genotype The alleles of an individual
Allele Way to represent a gene, can be in 2 forms ( dominant or recessive )
Dominant Expressed form of a trait, represented by a capital letter.
Recessive "Hidden" form of a trait, takes 2 recessive alleles. Represented by a lower case letter.
Radiometric Dating Estimation of the age of an object by measuring its radiation content.
Endosymbiosis Certain organelles (mitochondria & chloroplast) originated as free-living bacteria that were taken inside another cell.
Population All individuals of a species living in a specific place.
Natural Selection Individuals who are the most "fit" will survive and pass on their traits over those "unfit" individuals.
Adaptations Phenotype that provides some type of survival advantage.
Genetic Drift The change in frequency of a gene ( allele ) in a population due to randomness.
Migration The transfer of alleles of genes from one population to another.
Gradualism Gradual change over time
Punctuated equilibrium Model of evolution that states there are periods of rapid change followed by periods of little or no change
Speciation Formation of a new species
Vestigial structure Structure with no function (ex. Human Appendix)
Homologous structure Same structure different function …shows common ancestry(ex. Human arm & whale flipper)
Analogous Structure different structure/same function(ex. the wing of a bat & butterfly) Shows convergent evolution.
Convergent Evolution The process of a characteristic or adaptation that evolved in two or more separate organisms independently of each other. (Ex: the wing of a bird and a butterfly.)
Taxonomy science of naming and classifying organisms
Biological Species group of similar organisms that can breed with one another
Phylogeny Evolutionary history
Cladistics method of analysis that reconstructs phylogenies by inferring relationships based on shared characteristics
Pathogen A disease causing agent
Virus DNA or RNA wrapped in a protein coat; pathogenic
Bacteria unicellular prokaryote that contains a cell wall
Aerobic a process requiring oxygen
prefix “a” or “an” makes root word opposite
Bacteriophage Virus that infects bacteria
Antibiotics medicine that kills bacteria
Lytic Cycle virus destroys the cell it uses to reproduce
Lysogenic cycle virus does not destroy the cell it uses to reproduce
Vaccine used to prevent viral infections/diseases; made from weakened or killed viruses, when administered it causes your immune system to create antibodies that will fight off future invasions of the same virus.
Protist kingdom made up of mainly unicellular, eukaryotic organisms
pseudopod(ia) “false” “foot”, flexible cytoplasmic extensions used by amoeba
Flagella long hair like structure that grows out of cell and helps the cell move
Cilia tightly packed rows of short flagella used for movement
Chitin type of polysaccharide found in the cell walls of fungus, the exoskeleton of insects, & the cuticles of round worms
Mycorrhizae mutualistic relationship between fungus and plants. Fungus helps supply food and water to the plant while the fungus feeds on the CHO produced by the plant. Found in primitive plants.
Blastula hollow ball of cells that is formed in early development in all animals
Hox Genes genes that control early development in animals and specifically determine the head-to-tail pattern in animal embryos
Cephalization cluster of nerves near head region (ie. Brain)
Coelem true body cavity that is completely surrounded by mesoderm cells
Prefix “meso” Middle
Prefix “ecto” outer
Prefix “pseudo” false
Root word “stoma” mouth
Prefix ‘proto’ first
Prefix ‘deutero’ second
Tissue Group of similar cells working together
Epithelial Tissue Lining of most body surfaces
Prefix "Osteo" Pertaining to bone
Cardio Pertaining to heart
Plasma liquid portion of the b one
Digestion process of breaking down food into molecules
Neuron nerve cell
Nephron Tiny tubes in the kidney
Composition act of combining parts of elements to form a whole
Inhibit to PREVENT from doing something
"Leuko" prefix meaning "white"
Cuticle Wavy layer of plant tissue that protects the plant and doesn't allow water or gasses through
Stoma (stomata) Pores on underside of a leaf that permit gas exchange
Gaurd Cell Specialized cells that border the stoma. Regulate when the stoma is open.
Vascular plants Plants with a system if tubes used to distribute water and nutrients
Phloem plant tissue that transports FOOD
Xylem Plant tissue that transports WATER
Seed Contains plant embryo
Tropism growing or turning of an organism in response to a stimuus
Photo Light
Geotropism Plant's response to gravity
Germination emerge from a seed/spore and begin to grow
Dormancy to temporarily stop
Carrying Capacity the maximum number of individuals that can be supported in a habitat
Ecology Study of interactions of living and non-living things in an environment
Symbiosis long term interaction between 2 or more different species
Mutualism Type of symbiosis where both individuals benefit +,+
Parasitism type of symbiosis where one benefits at the others expense +,-
Commensalism Type of symbiosis where one benefits and the other is unaffected +,?
Habitat A place where something lives
Succession progression of species replacement; can be primary-growth where no growth has ever occurred before, OR secondary-succession where there has been previous growth
Trophic Level position on organism occupies in a food chain/web
Biomagnification The increase in concentration of a substance that occurs in a food chain
Detrivore heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by consuming detritus (decomposing plant & animal parts as well as fecal matter)
Combustion Burning
Created by: odettelira