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Introduction to Disease, Diagnostics and Therapeutics

Cancers often secrete __________________ blood vessel stimulators
a benign tumour of melanocytes Nevus
malignant tumour of melanocytes Melanoma
(approximately(75(percent(of(all(skin(cancers.(highly(treatable , starts(in(the(basal(cell(layer(of(the(epidermis basal cell carcinoma
type(of(blood(cancer(that(affects(the(lymphaAc(system Lymphoma
implicated(in( stomach(cancer helicobacter(pylori(
Significant problem associated with chemotherapy is the lack of_____ of the agents for normal versus malignant cells selectivity
Mechanisms of Chemotherapy Topoisomerase inhibitors// Interference with microtubule function // Alkylating agents // Antimetabolites // Monoclonal antibodies
a set of naturally occurring antibiotics isolated from bacteria which have anti-cancer properties Anthracyclines
Drugs can block tubulin process by either binding to tubulin to prevent__________ or binding to the microtubules to prevent_______. polymerization //depolymerisation
stabilizes microtubules which interferes with the normal breakdown of microtubules during cell division. Paclitaxel
binds to tubulin inhibiting the assembly of microtubule structures. Vincristine
Aromatic ring is electron withdrawing Lowers nucleophilic strength of nitrogen Less reactive alkylating agent Less side reactions and less toxicr Chloroambucil
Aromatic ring is present Less reactive alkylating agent Mimics amino acid phenylalanine Transported into cells by transport proteins Melphalan
Capable of crossing cell membranes Estramustine
Urethane group is electron withdrawing Lowers nucleophilic strength of nitrogen Alkylating group is attached to estradiol Steroid is hydrophobic Capable of crossing cell membranes Estramustine
Uracil ring is electron withdrawing Less reactive alkylating agent Mimics a nucleic acid base Concentrated in fast growing cells Uracil mustard
Synthetic compound used as an anticancer agent Causes interstrand crosslinking via SN2 reaction Busulfan
5-Fluorouracil is an______. antimetanbolite
Cancer cells have altered plasma membranes that contain distinctive antigens which are over expressed when compared to normal cells _Monoclonal Antibodies
rapidly dividing healthy cells e.g. cells in the _____ ____ ____ gastrointestinal tract, hair follicles, and bone marrow
Also some cells develop resistance to cisplatin (common for drugs) due to: decreased intracellular accumulation of cisplatin increased intra cellular levels of certain sulfur-containing macromolecules (iii) increased DNA repair
• Devoid of nephrotoxicity • Less toxic to GI tract • Myelosuppression is dose-limiting A more stable leaving group might lower toxicity without affecting anti-tumour efficacy carboplatin
The chemotherapy agent 5-FU (fluorouracil) acts in several ways but principally as a ____ _____ ____ __ __ _ _ _ _ thymidylate synthase inhibitor,
with symptoms and/or signs Symptomatic disease:
no signs or symptoms Asymptomatic disease:
cause of disease Etiology
agent responsible for causing disease • Etiologic agent:
process of development of disease • Pathogenesis:
any microorganism that causes disease Pathogen
Hemophilia is (______) disease hereditary
measles congenital
determination of nature and cause of illness Diagnosis
eventual outcome of disease Prognosis
MRI: advantages over CT scan doesnt use ionzing radiation, detects abnormalities around the bone
A tumour of mixed cell components Teratoma
• When cancer cells spread (no longer benign) from the primary site to another part of the body Invasion
Metastasis Tumour cells are transported through the circulatory system Transport typically to the bone liver and lungs where they may form secondary/tertiary tumours • Most people who die of cancer die of metastatic disease.
a benign tumour of melanocytes Nevus
malignant tumour of melanocytes Melanoma
PROSTATE CANCER Often metastasises to _____ via lymphatic's and blood supply pelvic bone
Created by: Naser