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ELA

Practice for the PSSA

TermDefinition
Alliteration The repetition of initial sounds in neighboring words. (Sarah sells sea shells by the seashore)
Author's point of view The author’s opinion or feelings as evident or detailed in a text about a topic. Not to be confused with first-person, second-person, etc., point of view.
Author's purpose The author’s reason or intention for writing a text ( to inform, to entertain, etc.)
Cause and effect A relationship between actions or events that are the result of the other.
Central idea (also called Controlling point or Main idea) The unifying element of a piece of a text.
Claim The thesis statement or main point that forms the basis for an argument within a text. The author's viewpoint or "where they stand" on an issue (for or against).
Compare and Contrast To place characters, situations, or ideas together to show common and/or differing features in literary selections.
Connection A relationship or association between one or more individuals, ideas, or events.
Convey To communicate by explaining or make known.
Demonstrate To make evident, show or prove.
Dialogue Conversation between characters or speakers in a literary work, referring specifically to the speech of characters in a drama.
Evaluate To examine and judge carefully. To judge or determine the significance, worth, or quality of something; to assess.
Evidence Facts, statistics, details, quotations, or other sources of data and information that provide support for claims or an analysis.
Focus The center of interest or attention.
Generalization A conclusion drawn from specific information that is used to make a broad statement about a topic or person.
Genre A category used to classify literary works, usually by form, technique, or content.
Hyperbole An exaggeration or overstatement (e.g., I had to wait forever).
Inference A judgment based on reasoning rather than on a direct or explicit statement. A conclusion based on facts or circumstances; understanding gained by “reading between the lines.”
Interpret To give reasons through an explanation to convey and represent the meaning or understanding of a text.
Key concept/detail An important point or idea in a text.
Key event An important occurrence within a text.
Personification An object or abstract idea given human qualities or human form (e.g., Flowers danced about the lawn).
Plot The structure of a story. The sequence in which the author arranges events in a story. The structure often includes the rising action, the climax, the falling action, and the resolution.
Recount To provide a brief retelling of key events in the order of occurrence.
Relevant Evidence that is pertinent and that supports a claim.
Sequence The order in which events take place within a story.
Setting The time and place in which a story takes place.
Simile A comparison of two unlike things in which a word of comparison (like or as) is used (e.g., The ant scurried as fast as a cheetah).
Stanza An arrangement of lines of verse in a pattern usually repeated throughout a poem. Usually, each stanza has a fixed number of verses or lines, an overall meter, and a consistent rhyme scheme.
Story element One of the essential components of a story (e.g., character, setting, plot).
Structure How information within a text is organized (e.g., chronology,comparison/contrast, cause/effect, problem/solution, question/answer).
Style The author’s choices regarding language, sentence structure, voice, and tone in order to communicate with the reader.
Summarize To capture all of the most important parts of the original text (paragraphs, story, poem) but express them in a much shorter space and as much as possible in the reader’s own words.
Text feature Print features as well as graphic, informational, and organizational aids (e.g., bold print, italics, maps, charts, labels, headings).
Theme A topic of discussion or work; a major idea broad enough to cover the entire scope of a literary work. A theme may be stated or implied.
Tone The attitude of the author toward the audience, the characters, the subject, or the work itself (e.g., serious, humorous).
Created by: amy_hines
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