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Summary Chp 1-3

Summary Reviews from end of Chapters

QuestionAnswer
Summarize how the Criminal Justice system responds to crime Investigate, Arrest, Book, Charge, Initial Appearance, Preliminary Hearing (Felony), Either indictment then arraignment by Grand Jury OR Arraignment on an Information, Trial (or plea bargain), Sentencing, Punishment
Define the difference between the crime control model versus the due process model Crime control is focused on CONTROL of the criminal and thus focuses on efficiency. Due Process focuses on preserving the rights of the accused from governmental abusiveness an d works to preserve personal freedom.
Why is Criminal Justice sometimes considered the last line of defense Without a system of justice, society could decay into anarchy and chaos.
What is an Information Document that outlines the formal charges, tells the specific laws violated, and presents the evidence in support of the charges. Charges - Violation - Evidence
What percentage of cases are resolved via Plea Bargains 95%. the other 5% via Bench or Jury trials.
What is the difference between arrest and booking Arrest is where you are legally detained, booking is where you are actually administratively placed into the system via photo shoot, documentation, fingerprinting, etc.
How do myths hurt the criminal justice system Myths are emotionally based not based on analytical fact. The punishment can be inconsistent with the severity of the crime. Myths also serve to impact individual behavior which could hurt society as a whole.
Ch2. What is the difference between the social versus the legal definition of crime? Social crime is a crime that violates societal norms. Illegal crime is an intentional violation of criminal law without defense and punished by the state.
Ch 2 What are two problems with the definition of societal crime There is no one set of laws in a society, and societal norms are subjective and change over time. ,
Ch2: What are some problems with the legal definition of crime? Overcriminalization, Undercriminalization, and Non Enforcement.
Ch2: What sre the 7 elements to have a crime 1) Harm, 2)Legality, 3) Actus Reas, 4) Mens Rea, 5) Causation, 6) Concurrence, 7) Punishment
Ch2: Name 6 acceptable defenses/excuses for criminal responsibilty 1) Duress, 2) Underage, 3) Insanity, 4) Entrapment, 5) Necessity 6) Defense of self or other
Ch2: Why are delinquency and crime stats unreliable 1) Not all crimes get reported to the police , 2) Police do not record all crimes reported, 3) Many crimes go undetected, 4) Some behaviors labeled as crime are not
Ch2: What are the two major sources for crime statistics in the US The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) compiled by the FBI and the Nat'l Crime Victimization Surveys (NCVS) compiled by the Bureau of Justice Statistics
Ch2: Describe the principal finding of the NCVS. The National Crime Victimization Surveys show more crimes than the UCR. They count more of some crimes and count them differently
Ch2: What per the NCVS is the cost of crime? 2009, the total economic loss to victims was $16.3 billion not including cost of criminal justice process, security devices, business loss, pain and suffering, etc. If all totalled, it could be upwards of $450 billion
Ch2: Profile the people most likely to fear crime Female, non-white, 18-20 years old, Jewish, Westerner, Democrat, Poor
Ch3: Define Criminological Theory The explanation of the behavior of criminals, police, attorneys, prosecutors, judges, victims and other actors in the criminal justice process.
Ch3: Per the Classical and Neoclassical criminologists, what are the causes of crime? Classical and Neoclassical criminologists argue that individuals are free willed and they rationally calculate that the crime will give them more pleasure than pain.
Ch3: Name at least three deterrents Classical/Neoclassical Criminologist suggest will combat crime. 1) Establish a social contract, 2) Enact clear, unbiased laws, 3) Impose appropriate punishments (prompt, certain, necessary, no judicial discretion), 4) Educate Public, 5) Eliminate Corruption, 6)Reward virtue.
Ch3: Describe the Biological Theories of the cause of crime Biological positives argue the cause of crime is biological inferiority. There are physical or genetic characteristics that distinguish criiminal from noncriminals.
Based on the argument of the biological criminologist, what are some possible remedies to the criminal behavior. Isolation, sterilization, execution, brain surgery, chemical treatment, better diet, and better care for the child and the mother.
Ch3: Describe the Psychological Theories of cause of crime Crime results from individuals mental or emotional disturbances, inability to empathize, inability to satisfy basic needs, or the oppressive circumstances of life.
Per Psychological Theorists, what are some remedies to combat crime Psychotherapy for those receptive. Isolation, sterilization, or execution for those who are not. Also remove the source of oppression and help people satisfy their basic needs.
Ch3: Describe the Sociological Theories of crime causation Think Borg...Crime is caused by the dissociation of the individual from the collective conscience (aka Anomie), Social Disorganization, Anomie resulting from lack of opportunity, Learning criminal values/behavior, failure to properly socialize individuals
How do Sociological Theorist suggest crime be combatted Create boundaries for crime, Organize/Empower neighborhoods, Reduce aspiration, Increase Opportunities, Provide law abiding models, Eliminate crime rewards reward law abiding acts, punish effectively, socialize children properly.
What is a differences between Classical, Positivists, and Critical Theories of the cause of crime Classical and Positivists assume society is characterized by consensus over moral values. Criticalists argue that characterized by conflict over moral values.
How would someone supporting the concept of Labeling Theory address crime avoidance Avoid labeling people as criminals.
How would a believer in Conflict theory address crime avoidance Have dominant groups give up some of their power or have group members become more effective rulers and subordinate group members become better subjects.
How would a believer in Radical Theory address crime avoidance Replace the criminal justice system with popular or social justice and create a socialist society appreciative of human diversity
Per the Left Realist, where should police power be focused... In the working class communities as working class are victims of the upper class as well as others within the class
How would the Peacemaking Criminologists combat crime Transform human beings into peple who can empathize with the less fortunate, respond to the needs of others, reduce hierarchies, create communiites of caring people and champion universal social justice.
How would Feminist Theorists address crime Eliminate patriarchial structures and relationships. Promote greater equality for women
How would Postmodernists combat crime Replace the formal criminal justice system with informal social controls overseen by local groups/communities. Replace the prevailing description of the world with new words, phrases concepts to convey alternative meanings such as what was historically
Created by: JeromeG