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NADN 2120 Immunology


The body's ability to recognize and defend against specific antigens. Immunity
Body's defense mechanism; allows rapid response to foreign substances in a specific manner. Genetic and cellular responses result. Immune System
Medication, age, chronic disease, integrity of CNS, diet, trauma, and general physical and emotional status all effect what? Immune Function
Occurs across the lifespan and are either genetically based on acquired. Immune Dysfunction
Name three capabilities of the immune system. Built-in memory, tolerance, and surveillance
Study of diseases that result from dysfunction Immunopatholgy
Excess, deficiencies, or alterations of immunocompetent cells, immunological attack of self-antigens, and inappropriate or exaggerated response to specific antigens are all what? Causes of Immune System Disorders
Normal protective immune response attacks the body leading to tissue damage and often chronic body changes is known as what? Autoimmune
What is it when the body produces exaggerated response to specific antigen? Hypersensitivity
Overproduction of immunoglobulins (frequently referred to as blood dyscrasia) is known as what? Gammopathies
Another term for disease of the blood Dyscrasia
Immune deficiencies can be ___________ or __________. Primary or Secondary
Genetic improper formation of immune cells is a ___________ immune deficiency. Primary
Acquired later in life; interference with developed immune system is a ___________ immune deficiency. Secondary
Type of infection-fighting white blood cell. Vital to effective, healthy immune system. Patrol the body for infectious microorganisms. Lymphocytes
Produced in bone marrow and will either mature into b or t cells. Housed in lymph organs or throughout the body. Lymphocytes
Mature in bone marrow. Become memory or plasma cells. If plasma cells, will create antibodies. B Cells
What cells are responsible for humoral response? B Cells
Mature in thymus. Either Regulator or Effector. Regulator become helper or suppressor. Effector = cytotoxic. T Cells
What cells are responsible for cellular response? T Cells
The skin is the _______________ line of defense. First
B Cells are the ____________ line of defense. Second
T Cells are the _____________ line of defense. Third
What three things are categorized as Granulocytes? Basophils, Eosinophils, and Neutrophils (Way to remember: Ben)
What two things are categorized as Non-Granulocytes? Lymphocytes and Monocytes (Way to remember: LMN)
First to arrive at the site of invasion Granulocytes
Phagocytic cells that consume cellular debris, immune complexes, and bacterial and viral particles. Stimulated by acute baterial infections and trauma. Neutrophils
When neutrophil production is significantly stimulated, immature neutrophils enter the circulation and are called ___________. This is called a "____________". Bands "Shift to the left"
Most abundant type of granulocyte (40-75%) Essential for fighting disease. Neutrophils
Lack of neutrophils is called ___________. Neutropenia
Called mast cells. Contain histamine and initiates the inflammatory response. Basophils
Stimulated in the presence of parasites and allergies. Also increase immune and inflammatory response. Eosinophils
What two things do not respond to bacterial and viral infections? High count does not indicate infection. Basophils and Eosinophils
Least common type of WBC Basophils
Migrate into tissue and called macrophages. Have phagocytic ability. Similar to neutrophils as they are produced more rapidly and live longer. Monocytes
Include B and T cells. Involved in cellular and humoral responses. Fight bacterial and viral infections. Lymphocytes
Immunoglobulins are also known as ____________. Antibodies
Immunoglobulins found in the nose, ears, GI, and vagina IgA
Immunoglobulins found in the tissues that line inner abdomen and chest IgD
Immunoglobulins found in the mucous membranes (lung, skin) d/t pollen, fungus, and animal dander IgE
Immunoglobulins found in all body fluids. Smallest, but most common type. IgG
Immunoglobulins found in the lymph and blood. First responders. IgM
Spleen acts as a ________. Filter
Red pulp signifies where old RBCs are _________. Destroyed
White pulp signifies concentration of _______________ that respond to __________. Lymphocytes Antigens
Where do T cells go after maturing in the thymus? Spleen and Lymph Nodes
Which age group has a more active thymus gland? Children
Lymph nodes remove foreign material from lymph before it enters the _____________. Bloodstream
Defend body's mucosal surfaces from microorganisms. Contain macrophages, and T and B cells Tonsils, adenoids, and other lymphatic tissue
Natural immunity is also called __________ immunity. Inate
Type of Immunity: Nonspecific response to any foreign invader. Active at birth. Natural Immunity
Type of Immunity: Broad spectrum of defense and resistance to infection. Does not "remember"; attacks all things equal. Natural Immunity
Coordinates initial response that decides whether to active cells to control the pathogen via elimination or promote acquired immunity. Natural Immunity
2 stages of response and how long until active Immediate (within 4 hours) Delayed (Can be 4 to 96 hours)
Cellular response (WBC action) is key and stimulates the ____________, which is the major function. Inflammatory Response
Begins with tissue injury or from antigens. Variety of chemical mediators are released by WBCs. Inflammatory Response
Chemical mediator which causes the blood to dilute Bradykinin
Chemical mediator which regulates (contract and relax) smooth muscle ostoprostaglandins
Natural mechanisms include ________ barriers, which include skin, mucous membranes, and cilia of the respiratory tract. Physical
Natural mechanisms include ___________ barriers, which include acidic gastric secretions, mucus, enzymes in tears and saliva, and sweat Chemical
Usually develops as a result of prior exposure to antigen. Obtained either through vaccine or by contracting disease. Acquired Immunity
Acquired immunity is also known as ________ immunity. Adaptive
Type of Immunity: Immune response is produces months after the initial exposure. Relies on recognition of the foreign antigen. Development of immunity either active or passive. Acquired Immunity
Immunity developed by person's own body and lasts many years/lifetime. Active-Acquired Immunity
Example of active-acquired immunity is a _______. Vaccine
Immunity is a temporary boost. Transmitted from outside source that has immunity. Passive-Acquired Immunity
Example of passive-acquired immunity is _______. Immuniglobulins given IM or IV
Occurs when an antigen enters the body and body responds by making antibodies. Can occur under natural or artificial conditions. Active-Acquired Immunity
Pathogenic bacteria or virus is made ineffective by process known as ___________, then added to vaccine. Attenuation
Temporary immunity transmitted from source outside the body that has developed immunity through previous exposure to disease or immunization. Passive-Acquired Immunity
Type of Immunity: "Ready-made" antibodies. Short-lived and frequently obtained from blood plasma of people with acquired immunity. Passive-Acquired Immunity.
Immune globulin, antiserum after exposure to hepatitis, or breastfeeding and the transfer of antibodies are examples of what immunity? Passive-Acquired Immunity
If unable to clear the antigen from the body, the person becomes ___________ or __________. Immunocompromised or Immunodeficient
Overly robust or misdirected immunity leads to allergies, asthma, or _____________. Autoimmune Disease
Recurring inflammatory response, which are mediated by T cells and __________, lead to __________. Cytokines Tissue Damage
Programmed cell death is also known as __________. Apoptosis
B cells transform into _______ which create antibodies. Plasma Cells
T cells turn into special __________ cells that attack. Cytotoxic/Killer Cells
What are the four stages of the immune response? Recognition Proliferation Response Effector
Stage of Immune Response: Ability to recognize antigens as foreign in order to react. Lymph nodes continually release lymphocytes into tissues and blood vessels to patrol. Circulate and recirculate blood > lymph on constant circuit. Recognition Stage
Stage of Immune Response: Circulating lymphocytes return to nearest lymph node and stimulates B and T lymphocytes to enlarge, divide and proliferate. Proliferation Stage
Stage of Immune Response: T lymph produce and release antibodies. Enlargement of nearby lymph nodes occurs. Proliferation Stage
Stage of Immune Response: Release of lymphocytes in either a humoral or cellular capacity. Response Stage
Stage of Immune Response: Destruction of invading microbes or the complete neutralization of toxin through humoral or cellular response. Effector Stage
Immunoglobulin Class: 75% total immunoglobulins. Found in serum and tissues. Major role in bloodstream and tissue infections. Enhances phagocytosis. Second titer to elevate. Activates the complement system. IgG
Immunoglobulin Class: 15% of immunoglobulins. Protects against infections. Prevents absorption of antigens from foods and passes to neonate in breastmilk. IgA
Immunoglobulin Class: 10% of immunoglobulins. First antibodies produced during bacterial and viral infections. Activates the complement system. First titer to elevate. IgM
Immunoglobulin Class: 0.2% of immunoglobulins. Role is unclear IgD
Immunoglobulin Class: 0.004% of immunoglobulins. Allergic reactions. Possibly combats parasitic infections. IgE
What system helps clear pathogens from body plasma proteins that circulate in an active form in the blood. Complement System
Complement System: Produced by ___________ and activated when an antibody connects with antigen. Liver
Defend against bacterial infections, facilitate natural and acquired immunity, and disposes of immune complexes and byproducts of inflammation are all functions of what? Complement System
Immunomodulators: Naturally produced, capable of activating other components in immune system, anti-viral and anti-tumor properties, researching use in AIDS. Tx MS, hepatitis Interferons
Immunomodulators: Naturally produced, r/t stimulating RBC production, helps regulate growth of bone marrow cells Colony-Stimulating Factors
Increased leukocyte count is indicative of what? Leukocytosis
Using lab techniques to change the DNA of living organisms is called ___________. Genetic Engineering
One type of genetic engineering combines genes from ___________ to manufacture new _________ that may enhance immune system function. Two separate organisms Organisms
A second type of genetic engineering is ________________. Experimental DNA Technology
Originates in the bone marrow. Can create new erythrocytes and leukocytes. Stem Cells
Have the ability to generate into over 220 other types of cells in the body. Stem Cells
Research has shown that ______ can restore a destroyed immune system. Stem Cells
Stem cells are obtained from what three places? Self (Autologus) Donor (Allogenic) Identical Twin (Syngeneic)
IV infusion of stem cells will migrate to _________. Bone Marrow
Takes several weeks for new stem cells to produce new ________ and patient's blood count to start increasing. Blood Cells
What two things are major suppressors of the immune system? Chemo Agents Steroids
Be sure to read and understand the chart 35-3 on page 979 Good luck!
The inability to coordinate movements is called ________. Ataxia
Inborn errors of immune function, autoimmunity, and cancer __________ immunodeficiency category. Primary
What Immunodeficiency Category: Frequently occur as a result of underlying disease processes or the treatment of those diseases. Secondary
HIV is a well known virus in this category Secondary
Most prevalent cause of secondary immunodeficiency worldwide is __________. Severe Malnutrition
Term for immunodeficient with chronic infections. Have inability to fight off any more. Immunocompromised
Have antiviral and antitumor properties Interferons
During which stage of the immune response does the circulating lymphocyte containing the antigenic message return to the nearest lymph node? Proliferation
Which of the medication classifications are known to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis or release? NSAIDs
Which stage of the immune response occurs when the differentiated lymphocytes function in either a humoral or a cellular capacity Response
A process in which the antigen-antibody molecule is coated with a sticky substance that facilitates phagocytosis Opsonization
Which of the immunoglobulins assumes a major role in blood-borne and tissue infections? IgG
Which type of cells are capable of recognizing and killing infected or stressed cells and producing cytokines? Natural killer cells
The pt’s teaching of ibuprofen is effective based on which of the following patient statements explaining the drugs effect on the immune system? a) Motrin can cause pancytopenia b) Motrin can cause thrombocytopenia c) Motrin can cause neutropenia c) Motrin can cause neutropenia
What is the first cell type to be elevated to prevent infection? Neutrophils
Used to treat immune-related disorders (e.g., multiple sclerosis) and chronic inflammatory conditions (e.g., chronic hepatitis) Interferons
Appears in serum and tissues, assumes a major role in bloodborne and tissue infections, and crosses the placenta IgG
Appears in body fluids (blood, saliva, tears, breast milk, and pulmonary, gastrointestinal, prostatic, and vaginal secretions). Protects against respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary infections, and passes to the neonate in breast milk. IgA
Created by: mreedy